2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 22:24
- Varieties of septic tanks
- Aeration stations
- Volume selection
- Septic tanks for summer cottages: which one is better to choose in the budget and medium price segments
- Useful related videos
The septic tank is an autonomous sewage system. It is most often used in suburban areas. This installation is capable of accumulating wastewater and purifying it in the process. With the help of such a system, the drains are safely absorbed into the soil and do not cause any damage to the outside. Find out how to choose a septic tank for a private home. Types of septic tanks, performance and other characteristics of treatment systems.
Varieties of septic tanks
If we talk about the design of the septic tank, then it can be both horizontal and vertical. Moreover, in some cases, the latter option may be preferable - why?
Based on the name itself, it is clear that a vertical septic tank is a wastewater treatment receiver, whose height turns out to be much larger than the diameter / size of the tank.
Now buy a septic tank, preferably made of polypropylene or fiberglass. At the root, the properties of this or that material are almost the same, however, the prices for a fiberglass septic tank can be higher than the prices for a polypropylene septic tank.
So, the simplest design option for a vertical septic tank is a container with a large volume. As a rule, the tank is used as a sump for wastewater, after which the wastewater is pumped through drainage pipes to the soil tertiary treatment.
Similar options for septic tanks can be used as septic tanks for toilets or baths.
The main manufacturers of cleaning systems are:
- JSC TD.
- Engineering equipment.
If the simplest vertical septic tank is equipped with additional purification systems, then the wastewater that undergoes deep purification can subsequently be used as irrigation water.
In this case, it is necessary to lay drainage pipes on the site - with a certain slope towards the wastewater receiver, of course. Their laying in particular, and excavation work in general, can be carried out by special equipment, for example, the same loaders or dump trucks.
Smaller area (such a structure is especially advantageous on sites with limited dimensions)
Excellent operation even in the coldest season (a too elongated structure will not freeze in frost)
Good process of wastewater settling (the deeper the septic tank, the better the distribution of effluent particles, respectively, water is better purified and clarified)
The use of self-made containers exclusively in groundwater with a low water level
Impossibility of using self-cleaning functions - in this case, you will have to additionally use bioactivators to clean the septic tank. It
follows from this that such septic tanks are perfectly applicable in cases where there is no place on the land plot for the equipment of a full-fledged horizontal septic tank.
To determine which septic tank is best for the house, you cannot ignore the aeration stations. Of course, the cost of such systems will cost more. Today these are the most advanced systems for microbiological treatment of household and utility waste. The design of such installations presupposes the presence of several compartments in the septic tank, where the wastewater goes through the stages of sedimentation, mechanical separation, purification with anaerobic bacteria and aerobic microorganisms, and final filtration. Of course, such a septic tank requires maintenance.
The quality of water treatment is a high degree of wastewater treatment. In this regard, a natural question arises, where to drain the water from the septic tank in winter?
High quality of cleaning and complete absence of odor enables the owner to use water for technical purposes. It is allowed to use purified liquid for irrigation of plantings on the site. Multi-stage bioremediation allows you to dump liquid directly onto the ground or into a roadside ditch without harm to the environment.
In winter, an aeration septic tank for year-round use does not require the use of additional thermal insulation measures, since all processes of biomass processing by microorganisms proceed with the release of heat. The water in the tank does not freeze and does not require seasonal pumping out of the tank.
Will the drains freeze in frost? Do I need to insulate a septic tank?
If used constantly, they will definitely not freeze - a kind of bioreactor constantly works inside, generating heat. In extreme cases, you can insulate it by sprinkling a layer of straw or leaves on top.
For seasonal use, it is recommended to fill the container 2/3 with drains, additionally insulating it from above. So the container will not float up and will not be crushed by the frozen ground. We recommend that you additionally read the instructions for a particular model, the manufacturer may have a different opinion on this matter.
Conclusions on the pros and cons of using biological treatment plants in a suburban area.
Advantages: high quality of household wastewater treatment, no smell, the ability to drain onto the ground, the ability to use water for irrigating plants and for technical needs. Disadvantages: high cost, the need for power supply to ensure the operation of the aerators, the requirement for qualified maintenance.
The calculation of the volume of the chambers plays an important role, since the performance of the structure depends on their value. In addition, wastewater should not be located in the chambers for more than three days. To do this, you can resort to the following calculation: one person spends about 150 liters of wastewater per day, in three days this figure will increase and will be 450 liters. If the whole family lives at home, then the calculation will be different and the volume of the cells will increase.
Below are the data for an approximate calculation of a two-, three-section septic tank:
- 2-3 people - up to 2 cubic meters;
- 4-5 people - 4 cubic meters;
- 6-7 people - 6 cubic meters
When it is customary in a family to constantly take a shower, there is a washing machine, a water heating tank, a dishwasher, etc., then the average daily volume of fluid consumed increases significantly.
To reduce the cost of the sewer truck services, it is better to choose septic tanks with a large capacity. But it should be borne in mind that the cost of such installations is quite high, so it is worth purchasing them with permanent residence in the territory of a private house.
With a seasonal stay on the territory of a private house, a full-fledged wastewater treatment system is not at all necessary. It is much easier to install a simple storage septic tank. In addition, the cost of such a design is an order of magnitude less than more complex models. For permanent residence, it is better to choose septic tanks with several sections.
As for the location and shape of the septic tank, you should choose based on the following factors:
- if the groundwater level is increased, then it is advisable to install a horizontal septic tank;
- vertical models are suitable if there is a need for a compact placement of the cleaning system.
When he permanently lives on the territory of a private house, septic tanks with soil filtration or deep biological treatment are suitable. Both devices filter wastewater, but the level of treatment they have is slightly different, if this difference is not fundamental, then it is better to choose a structure with soil filtration, it is somewhat cheaper and does not require electricity.
The septic tank can be designed and installed by yourself. First of all, draw up a detailed diagram of the structure, correctly calculate the volume of the chambers and choose the place where the installation will take place. It is important to adhere to the norms that are specified in the SNiP 2.04.03-85 document.
The installation diagram is drawn up depending on the conditions of the location. Typically, it includes a pipeline running from the outside of the room to the treatment plant. This also includes a camera made of plastic and rings. The scheme includes a pipe connecting the soil tertiary treatment and the outlet from the septic tank, as well as aeration fields, where wastewater is absorbed into the soil.
Will the container squeeze out of the soil? The container can float if it is not installed correctly. That is why it is important to follow all the manufacturer's recommendations. They take into account the design of the container: its geometry, mass, the presence of additional elements that prevent squeezing and extrusion.
In the process of installing a septic tank, be sure to pay attention to the choice of material from which the cameras will be made. They must be durable and not exposed to various aggressive environments. Do not use metal tanks as they will quickly deteriorate from corrosion.
Once the installation project is ready, proceed with the installation work. First, prepare a pit and dig a trench for laying pipes. Cameras must be installed below the level of soil freezing. If you can't do this, you should think about warming the cameras. Sprinkle the bottom of the pit with sand, about 15-20 cm.
Next, there is a collection of septic tanks. At the same time, seal the joints between the rings well; tightness is important here. At the end of all work, connect the cameras to the pipes and start filling the structure with a solution of sand and cement. The top cover of the septic tank is covered with a hatch in order to pump out the sediment from the chamber from time to time.
Thus, installing a septic tank with your own hands is absolutely not difficult. The main thing is to comply with all requirements and standards.
Septic tanks for summer cottages: which one is better to choose in the budget and medium price segments
For ease of choice, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with some models from three well-known septic tank manufacturers.
Eco Septic Company. Offers cleaning systems "Topas", "Astra", "Deco". Cost from 67 thousand rubles. for a local cleaning station for 4 people.
Multiplast company. Septic tanks of the budget segment, costing from 52 thousand rubles, for a non-volatile waste heat-sump. Up to 76 thousand rubles, for a full-fledged biological treatment station Ergobox 6 S, designed to serve six people.
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