2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 22:24
- Preparation of tools and materials
- Surface preparation for laying
- Surface marking
- Start laying and filling the area with solid pieces.
- Cutting tiles and laying the remaining fragments
- Tile grout
- Useful Tips
Laying tiles on your own is not an easy task, and therefore, many people trust it to professionals. But such a solution is quite costly, and therefore, do-it-yourself work is far from uncommon. This is where the step-by-step tile laying helps.
An important factor in this case is strict adherence to the work technology. In total, the whole process can be broken down into 7 stages. More specifically, the laying of ceramic tiles on the floor is carried out in the following sequence:
- First of all, the calculation of materials, their purchase and preparation of the tool are performed.
- Next, you need to prepare the surface, in this case, the base is leveled and primed.
- The next step is marking, which involves roughly laying out the tiles and making markings, in some cases reference stops.
- The next step is to start laying, in particular the first row.
- Further, the entire area is laid with solid tiles.
- The next step is tile cutting and laying.
- And in the end, grouting is carried out.
Thus, detailed instructions are simply necessary for the correct installation of the tiles on the floor with your own hands. And then we will consider in more detail each of the stages of work.
Preparation of tools and materials
In the case when the tiles are laid with their own hands, you will need the following tool:
- Master OK.
- Several spatulas, in particular notched, regular and rubber.
- You should also arm yourself with several levels, small, up to 50 centimeters in size, and medium, up to 1 meter.
- The rubber mallet is next.
- Another necessary tool is a grinder or tile cutter, since in most cases it is simply necessary to cut tiles. Here you can also note additional devices, such as wire cutters, sandpaper and file.
- And the last fixture will be the container for the glue mixture.
With the tool sorted out, now you should pay attention to the materials, or rather to their calculation and purchase.
In particular, for a correct calculation, it is not enough just to measure the surface area; factors such as:
- Tile size.
- The thickness of the adhesive mixture.
- Tile type.
- Base material.
- The presence of obstacles.
All these factors just need to be considered. In addition, if you need to cut tiles, you should also pay attention to the size of the segments. Because if they make up more than half of the tile size, then for one such row, you will need to purchase twice as many tiles.
Usually, when calculating, 10-15% is added to the resulting number, which is mostly enough to cover the costs of cutting, as well as cases of marriage (damage to tiles, incorrect cutting, etc.).
Speaking of the adhesive mixture, here the calculation is carried out based on the type of tile, the type of the mixture itself, the size, and the required layer thickness, which is usually indicated on the package.
To calculate the required amount of grout and glue, you can use the calculators on our website:
- Grout consumption calculator.
- Adhesive mixture consumption calculator.
We also recommend reading:
- What kind of glue to choose.
- How to choose the required styling thickness.
With this issue sorted out, now you can go directly to the technological process.
Surface preparation for laying
The first question is precisely the preparation of the foundation. It is very important to ensure the surface is as flat as possible, otherwise the perfect styling will not work. The main mistake is the myth that a slightly larger layer of glue can hide irregularities, which is not true. High-quality installation is possible only on a flat surface, and nothing else.
Before laying, first of all, it is necessary to dismantle the old coating, if any, right down to the very base. The next step is to form a screed and waterproofing.
The method of leveling the floor does not matter here. It can be both dry and wet screed, arrangement of the "warm floor" system, etc. The main factor is full compliance with the technology of work.
Also, all sills, baseboards and other obstacles that may interfere with putting the tiles back to the wall are subject to dismantling.
In some cases, it is possible to lay tiles on the floor without dismantling the old coating (in particular, provided that it is also a tile).
- How to make a screed with your own hands.
- The device of the "warm" floor independently.
- How to put new tiles on old ones.
And the next step is marking the floor surface, which is especially important when laying uneven tiles. It is carried out as follows:
- An even line of the first row of tiles is marked. Since the laying is carried out starting from the far corner of the room, accordingly, the markup is also.
- Next, material location marks are drawn. In cases where tiles are laid without seams with a pattern, a complete drawing of the location of the elements is necessary.
- Laying at the entrance becomes an important factor, in this case, the markings should be carried out in such a way that solid fragments lie at the doors, respectively, it may be necessary to indent from the far wall.
- Taking into account the seams, the size of which also plays a role, becomes an important factor when marking.
- You can also carry out a preliminary layout of the tiles on the surface, for more accurate marking.
Start laying and filling the area with solid pieces
After the markup is completed, you can start laying ceramic tiles with your own hands. To begin with, we will analyze directly the arrangement of the first row and the further laying of the whole fragments, after which we proceed to cutting and final laying.
So, let's look at how the tiles are laid, step-by-step instructions in this case will be the best assistant:
- First of all, you need to prepare the glue mixture. Difficulties should not arise here. We do everything in accordance with the instructions on the package. In this case, the amount of mixing should not exceed the required for a plot of 1 square meter.
- Now, armed with a notched trowel, apply a layer of glue to the floor surface. For greater reliability, you can also apply a layer on the tile itself, in this case, the grooves of the mixture on the surfaces should be perpendicular to each other.
- We put the first tile on the glue, after which we press it down, lowering it to the required level. Next, you need to align it to an ideal horizontal position, which is checked using a building level.
- For leveling, a rubber hammer is used, with the help of which, with light taps, the tile is pressed more tightly to the surface.
- It is important to do everything quickly and accurately. After laying, it is highly undesirable to remove the tiles from the surface.
- So, the first tile is laid and leveled. Now you can start laying the subsequent ones.
- In the same way as in the first case, glue is applied and the tiles are laid on the floor. Next, alignment is carried out to the level of the first element. You can add a little glue if necessary.
- After the final shrinkage of the tiles, the excess mixture is removed.
- It is important not to forget about using crosses or special floor leveling systems to form the same seams over the entire surface.
- The crosses should be placed either in the corners, at the intersection, or with an indent of 2-3 centimeters from the edge of the tile.
- All gaps between tiles should be immediately cleaned of excess adhesive, as once it dries, cleaning will be almost impossible.
- The laying of large tiles is carried out in the same way.
- Further, the base area is completely covered with whole fragments.
This completes this phase, and you can move on. Before, it is necessary to allow the glue to set and harden to such an extent that one can walk on the coating. It is advisable to leave the masonry for a day, and then continue working.
Cutting tiles and laying the remaining fragments
The next step is cutting the missing pieces of the coating. Several fixtures can be used to cut tiles, depending on the type and thickness of the tiles. In some cases, it is permissible to use a manual tile cutter and glass cutter, in others it is possible to cope only with the help of a grinder. And for porcelain stoneware tiles, you will need an electric tile cutter.
Having chosen a tool, you must first take all the necessary measurements and make marks on the tile. All marks are drawn from the back. Having marked out the tiles, you can start cutting. Since the process is quite dusty, it is advisable to carry it out outdoors.
If it is necessary to cut uneven fragments, for example, arcuate, a machine with a diamond wheel or a special tile cutter is used.
The cutting process itself is carried out as follows:
- The tile must be firmly fixed so that it does not wobble or vibrate during cutting.
- Then, following the applied marks, cutting is performed.
In the case of using a special tile cutter, it includes a special fixing platform and stops with which you can indicate the cutting direction.
After cutting, the edges must be sanded, for which a file is used; for large volumes, a machine with a diamond or emery wheel can be used. A detailed video on the technology and laying of tiles
And the last stage is grouting. It can not be carried out only in the case of seamless tile laying.
To start it, you need to wait until the glue mixture is completely dry, and then completely remove the crosses and other auxiliary materials from the surface, if any.
For grouting, a cement-based mixture is used (in most cases), other types can also be used. An important factor is the direct selection of grout, which should ideally complement the tile design and the entire room in general.
More details about the choice and carrying out of grouting in a separate material
Before starting, we carry out a complete cleaning of the surface, which can be done with a vacuum cleaner, and proceed. The process itself is carried out as follows:
- We glue the edges of the tiles with masking tape. This is done if the tile is matte and the pores are large and to avoid contamination and reduce tile cleaning when using epoxy grouts.
- The next step is to dilute the grout, and apply it with a rubber spatula.
- Movements are performed perpendicular to the seam, while with pressure, in order to completely fill the seam with the compound.
- After that, the excess mortar is removed, the seam at the same time deepens and levels out a little.
- After complete drying, the adhesive tape is removed and the surface of the tile is wiped with a damp sponge.
This completes the tiling work.
And in conclusion, we offer some expert advice:
- First, regarding the markup. Before carrying out, calculate the coverage area and pay attention to how the tiles will lay down. If it is not possible to complete the installation in completely solid fragments, then retreat from the wall in such a way that the last fragment (at the door) is solid.
- Laying is best done initially along the larger wall, and then along the smaller one.
- When using several types of styling at the same time, which smoothly merge into each other, it is necessary to clearly note the location of the fragments. The same applies to creating a drawing.
- Under no circumstances should the tiles be laid on uneven floors.
- It is also an important advice, and at the same time the answer to the question of which tiles are easier to lay, will be exactly the tiles of the standard size 30 by 30 centimeters.
After reading the materials of the article, you will be able to lay the tiles yourself. But to consolidate the knowledge gained, we suggest watching several videos in which all the moments and stages of installation are clearly shown and explained.