2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:54
- Ways to connect to central heating
- Vertical layout
- Horizontal layout
- Apartment heating system
- Some of the benefits of apartment heating
- Wiring types
- Perimeter, mixed
- Choosing pipes
- Reinforced plastic, polypropylene pipes
- Corrugated stainless pipe
- PE-X pipes
- Simple but helpful tips
The constant increase in tariffs for housing and communal services causes a natural tendency of residents of apartment buildings to install independent individual heating systems. Modern construction provides at the design stage zoned floor and, further, apartment heating.
The original solution for wiring for floor heating in the apartment hides the distribution piping system, preserving the aesthetic appearance of the rooms. The independence of the installation schemes for process pipes at individual facilities makes it possible to create an individual project for a heat supply scheme, install various heating devices.
Ways to connect to central heating
The centralized heat supply of a multi-storey building a priori implies the timely delivery of the required volume of coolant with certain SNiP 41-01-2003 p. 6.1.6 parameters of temperature and pressure during the cold periods of the year. Each building connected to the main is equipped with a distribution elevator unit with control and regulation equipment, which provides:
- reducing the pressure in the system to design parameters;
- automatic regulation of the volume of the coolant entering the risers;
- the required temperature reduction to +90 - +95 0 With mixing the hot coolant of the line with cooled water from the return of the risers;
- filtration in order to reduce the total oxygen content in the coolant.
The schemes that are used to ensure uninterrupted heat supply of multi-storey residential buildings are conventionally divided into vertical and horizontal. One-pipe and two-pipe. Each has its own characteristics, a number of advantages or disadvantages.
Refusal from the standard construction method, the transition to individual projects, provides for a change in the heat supply scheme, its specifics. At the same time, taking into account the peculiarities of the system, a project for heating an apartment in an apartment building is drawn up individually, with all the necessary calculations.
The requirements of Federal Law No. 261-FZ directly state that from January 1, 2012, any new buildings must be equipped with individual (apartment-based) heat energy consumption metering systems. The Moscow government has also developed guidelines for the design of automated energy-efficient devices for apartment heating (order No. 61-RZM).
The vertical distribution scheme of the coolant is otherwise called riser. This type of wiring is subdivided into systems with an upper or lower supply of coolant. Most often, the project includes the lower location of the highways in basements or technical floors with a scheme with vertical risers and a dead-end movement of the coolant. Here, one-pipe or two-pipe open distribution of heating is used in the apartment along the floor along the baseboards from free-standing risers.
The system has become widespread in the construction of typical brick, panel houses. The use of a riser circuit is associated with a number of disadvantages:
- The provision of SNiP clearly prohibits unauthorized changes in the heating circuit and the replacement of devices. Such actions will lead to a complete or partial imbalance of the heating system on the risers. To obtain permission from the management company, you will need a project for an apartment heating system indicating the number of devices and their nominal data on hydraulic resistance.
- The scheme assumes a general house meter for the consumption of the coolant and, accordingly, the payment is distributed evenly among all residents, depending on the area of the apartment.
- In the event of repair of process pipelines, clogging, replacement of current radiators, it will be necessary to turn off the heat supply to all apartments powered by the riser.
The implementation of horizontal floor zoning of the centralized heating system of an apartment building allows you to partially get rid of the shortcomings of the vertical scheme, to get a number of advantages when designing heating an apartment. The inclusion of a balancing pair of valves in the floor-by-floor horizontal scheme leads to the formation of a separate independent subsystem with adjustable hydraulic stability.
Here, ASV-M and ASV-I valves are installed on the supply pipeline, ASV-P or ASV-PV are installed on the return line. Communicating through the impulse tube, the valves form a pair that allows you to regulate the pressure drop in the system, making it possible to limit the flow rate of the coolant.
For the installation of the necessary shut-off and control valves, distributing combs, the project provides for the installation of group heating points on each floor. Further zoning of the heating system on the floor leads to apartment-based coolant distribution subsystems.
The piping scheme for a storeyed group heating point includes:
- Ball valves regulating supply and return.
- Pressure gauges installed at the inlet and outlet of the heating medium before, after the balancing valves.
- Strainer in the supply section.
- Balancing automatic valve.
- Manual adjustable shut-off valve.
- Taps for draining water on the supply, return.
- Heat meters for each apartment.
Important! You cannot even try to change the settings of the balancing valves of the group substation yourself.
Apartment heating system
An individual apartment heating project provides for complete independence. From the storey group heating point through the combs, hot water flows to the heating partings in each separate apartment. Installing a manual balancing valve ASV in the pipeline turns the apartment heating into a subsystem with independent manual regulation of the pressure and flow rate of the heating agent.
In the case when there are few apartments on the floor, distribution combs are installed in the group heating point. If there is not enough space for installation, a heating unit or cabinet is provided directly in the apartment.
The apartment heating piping scheme includes:
- Ball valves regulating the flow of water to the supply and return combs. Each individual floor heating system wiring has its own control valve.
- Automatic air vent valve.
- Manual balancing valve.
- Drain tap.
- Temperature sensor for supply, return.
- Flow meters at each manifold inlet.
- Filter - sump on the return line.
Some of the benefits of apartment heating
The applied floor heating system in the apartment as a subsystem of the zoned floor distribution of the coolant is a promising direction in the construction of multi-apartment or multi-functional buildings. This scheme makes it easy for employees of the management organization to service any of its sections, significantly reduces the time for repair and preventive work.
Residents will receive unlimited opportunities for any changes to the scheme, complete independence from the general heating system of an apartment building.
Here are some of the benefits that apartment owners will get:
- the apartment system, where floor heating is used, provides the ability to turn off any heating device separately from the others or adjust it;
- comfortable living conditions are maintained;
- payment is made according to the meter, even if it is a new building where some of the apartments are not inhabited;
- nothing prevents you from making a warm floor, connecting it to the system.
According to paragraph 6.3.3 of SP 60.13330, pipelines made of polymeric materials are allowed in apartment heating systems when the parameters of the coolant should not exceed: temperature - +90 0 С, pressure - 1.0 MPa.
Important! The method of laying pipelines should ensure easy replacement during repairs.
According to paragraph 6.3.3 of SP 60.13330 - it is recommended to carry out the heating distribution under the polymer floor hidden in the corrugated pipe. Open laying is allowed behind skirting boards, screens where mechanical damage and direct exposure to ultraviolet radiation are excluded.
It is recommended to use such types of wiring as:
- two-tube beam;
- two-pipe perimeter;
Double-tube beam wiring provides for the connection of a separately located device to the switch cabinet of the apartment. The floor is poured only after the installation of the corrugation, installation of the fasteners to the floor, the device of the compensation loop, and pressure testing.
According to building codes, underfloor heating in an apartment is laid without joints. Products of the PE-X line are produced by enterprises in coils, it is recommended to calculate the required footage in advance.
The best option is beam wiring, in which each device is individually connected to the distribution manifold. There are no intermediate connections on the way from the manifold to the device, which ensures high reliability. In addition, a change in flow through one of the devices practically does not affect the operation of the others.
Code radial routing in the middle of the floor is undesirable for any reason; two-pipe perimeter routing is used. It is laid along the skirting boards under the floor or openly, but with screens.
When installing the skirting board, take into account the location of the perimeter wiring in order not to damage the heat pipe. When several separate radiators are located along the wall farthest from the control cabinet, beam wiring is applied to the nearest device, then perimeter between the rest of the devices.
The heating pipe laying under the floor in the apartment is invisible, does not affect the appearance of the room, does not require opening when repairing or replacing the pipeline.
Modern design of heat supply systems is 95% based on the use of plastic, polyethylene, corrugated stainless pipes. Each of them has its own disadvantages and advantages.
Metal, copper pipes also have the right to exist, but due to the tendency to corrosion, high cost, and complexity of installation, their use is reduced. Preference is given to plastic products that are not inferior in characteristics. For detailed recommendations on the choice of heating pipes, see the video.
Reinforced plastic, polypropylene pipes
Reinforced-plastic pipes are widely used for laying water supply, heating, underfloor heating. They bend well, are easy to install, can withstand significant temperature, pressure, and have a budgetary cost.
Metal-plastic consists of dissimilar layers with different coefficients of thermal expansion. Application experience shows that when using metal-plastic in hot water supply, layers are separated, the pipe breaks down after 5-7 years. Such a layout of heating pipes in the floor is not recommended.
Polypropylene has no layers, freely withstands the service life guaranteed by the manufacturer. The main disadvantage is the need to strictly observe the temperature, heating time with a soldering iron during installation. Polypropylene has low thermal conductivity and cannot be used for underfloor heating.
Corrugated stainless pipe
Corrugated stainless steel pipe, developed using innovative technologies, is recommended for laying heat supply networks. When using such a product, it is easy to install heating on the floor in a new building or replace old pipelines.
Here are some of the benefits of using it:
- bends easily;
- provides easy connection of fittings, facilitates, speeds up the installation process;
- corrugated structure compensates for fluctuations in linear dimensions, hydraulic shocks;
- does not corrode, there is no sediment on the walls.
PE-X - cross-linked polyethylene products. Sewing is the process of imparting strength to the connection of polyethylene molecules, obtaining a round product. The pipes are marked (GOST 52134-2003 for Russian manufacturers) indicating the stitching method:
PE-Xa molecules are crosslinked with peroxides. This is an expensive, laborious process. PE-Xb - pairing. The process is simple, so these are the cheapest products in the PE range. PE-Xc - crosslinking with radioactive isotopes.
Polyethylene allows oxygen to pass through well, which allows bacteria to grow inside the heating elements. To prevent oxygen from passing to the coolant, the product is made multi-layer. An EVOH layer is inserted inside.
Innovative developments have led to the creation of polyethylene more resistant to high temperatures - PE-RT. In modern construction, the distribution of heating pipes in an apartment on the floor is made by PE-RT.
Important! It is recommended to choose a pipe marked PE-RT / EVOH / PE-RT, it is five-layer, does not allow oxygen molecules to pass to the coolant.
Price, rub / meter
|PE-X / EVOH||16.0||2||28|
|S9 304 stainless steel corrugated pipe||fifteen||95|
|Casing, HDPE corrugated under polyethylene 16 mm||25||12|
Simple but helpful tips
A few useful tips for those who independently make the heating of an apartment:
- To easily pull the PE pipe through the corrugated sheath, carefully chamfer the end, it will fit freely even when the corrugation has bends.
- To prevent the corrugation from sliding off the sleeve during installation, sealing the pipe with a solution, tape it with tape.
- Take into account the plan of the apartment, the heating will heat the floor at the places of installation. Mount along the aisles.
- Mount the radiator from the top, from the bottom for rigidity, full circulation.
- Be sure to make a self-compensation loop on each extended manifold.
- Install converters, they are more expensive, but much more efficient.
Important! A special hydraulic tool is required to install the PE-X range resin. The set can be rented or bought from 16,500 rubles.
Drawing up a project for heating an apartment, using apartment systems is a must when building new multi-storey, multi-functional buildings. Residents of such apartments can independently regulate the temperature, close or completely close the supply taps to heating devices to create comfortable conditions. Payment for the use of thermal energy is carried out strictly according to the meter. In addition, watch a helpful video on heating your apartment.
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