How To Choose A Piping Layout For An Apartment Heating System

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Video: How To Choose A Piping Layout For An Apartment Heating System

Video: How To Choose A Piping Layout For An Apartment Heating System
Video: CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEMS EXPLAINED - S Plan, Y Plan, One pipe, Two Pipe Underfloor Heating 2023, October
How To Choose A Piping Layout For An Apartment Heating System
How To Choose A Piping Layout For An Apartment Heating System
  • Features of choosing a scheme
  • Types of wiring diagrams
  • One pipe system
  • "Leningradka"
  • Two-pipe system
  • Collector system
  • Warm skirting board
  • Dead-end and passing wiring
  • Vertical and horizontal
  • Influence of building design

When building his own house, as well as when arranging autonomous heating in an apartment building, the owner should think about high-quality piping. This will affect not only the appearance of the interior of the premises, but also the comfortable conditions in terms of temperature indicators inside each room. Experts say that they are not much different for an apartment and a private house, but the features still exist.

Features of choosing a scheme

It is better to choose a wiring during the preparatory work for the construction of a house, when only the project documentation is being drawn up. This can be called the most profitable option, where every detail can be foreseen. Practical activity speaks about the possibility of choosing the type of wiring for the heating system and when living in premises. When heating is selected, the types of wiring will completely depend on the structure and requirements from the contractor in the end.

You can connect the pipeline not only to central heating, but also by arranging your own mini-boiler room. Such an autonomous heating system saves on the heat carrier and does not depend on the period when the central heating main is turned off.

The effectiveness of all equipment for a heating system will depend on certain reasons, among which:

  1. Calculated technical and economic indicators. They must be correct and allow you to choose a heating system of an individual character. The minimum amount of fuel will be consumed, which will lead to its early payback.
  2. Heating system diagram. The layout of the pipeline will affect the uniformity of heating of each room and its individual part. In addition, some utility rooms should be warm, which should not be forgotten during the installation work. The corresponding types of heating pipes are also highlighted here.
  3. Installation quality, putting all elements into operation. If you start it contrary to all the established rules, the equipment will fail. It's wasted time and money. When there is no self-confidence, it is best to seek help from specialists in their field.

Practice shows that all important activities, such as the choice of material or design and estimate documentation, must be carried out by specialists. Only in this case can we talk about a positive final result.

Types of wiring diagrams

In total, there are several main groups into which all options for wiring schemes are divided:

  • One and two pipe.
  • Dead-end and with oncoming traffic of the heat carrier.
  • Positioned vertically and horizontally.

    The choice of the heating system wiring
    The choice of the heating system wiring

The final layout should have a combination of two of your three points. This suggests that if, for example, a one-pipe scheme is selected, it will be located horizontally and have a dead-end movement of the coolant. Its final choice must be made in the process of drawing up the project documentation. Each of its options will be correct if you make the right drawing and carry out installation work according to the technology.

The designer is mainly fixated on the choice of one or two-pipe heating distribution method. Moreover, each of them has its own pros and cons. The main factors at the same time are economy, ease of work, comfort level and efficiency.

In addition, there are other types of heating wiring, such as:

By the way of water flow:

  • Forced.
  • Natural.

    The choice of the heating system wiring
    The choice of the heating system wiring

System in general:

  • Closed. A set pressure is generated inside. The liquid used does not come into contact with air.
  • Open. You have to independently control the liquid level in the middle of the expansion barrel.

One pipe system

With a single-pipe arrangement, half the materials are used for work, which is reflected in cost savings. This is especially evident when buying expensive copper pipes. In addition, the installation process itself can be performed by novices in the construction business. But in the end, the consumer receives the distribution of heat in the premises unevenly due to a decrease in the temperature of the coolant at a distance from the heating boiler. We'll have to purchase more powerful and expensive heating devices. But even in this case, there will be no guarantees of achieving the efficiency of heating the air in the rooms.

The choice of the heating system wiring
The choice of the heating system wiring

Without a bypass, the radiator cannot be completely shut down. This creates huge inconveniences and difficulties when repair work is necessary.


There is a specific one-pipe scheme called "Leningradka". It shows the ability to be efficient during operation. There is no direct connection of radiators here. There is a sequence, but the supply and return pipes are connected directly to the line from the batteries. This is the main difference from the classic performance.

The benefits will depend on the presence of shut-off valves on the heating radiators. It allows you to control the temperature level during use. Shut-off valves allow you to shut off the water supply to a single radiator.

Even in this case, the regulation of the coolant will not be disturbed throughout the system. This allows you to carry out repair work with one of the devices. All others will function as usual.

Two-pipe system

During the installation process, a large number of pipes are used to arrange the entire system. The number of jobs increases significantly, and costs also rise. But in return, the wiring diagram will bring a huge number of positive qualities associated with the uniform distribution of heat, creates favorable conditions for the operation of the pump in the heating boiler, which allows the use of foreign-made equipment.

The choice of the heating system wiring
The choice of the heating system wiring

There are some features that a two-pipe heating system has:

  • The heating agent is heated by the operation of the heating boiler. There can be a huge number of its options.
  • The need to install a regulating thermostat at the outlet and inlet of the radiator.
  • The drain cock must be fixed at the lowest point of the heating system.
  • If the installation of the selected circuit is carried out simultaneously on two floors, it is necessary to use auto-bleed valves. They are attached to the highest points of the system.
  • Radiators are connected from the side, and, if desired, a diagonal or bottom pipeline inlet is selected.
  • When work is carried out in a one-story building, the auto-bleed valves are fixed on the last batteries, as well as the heated towel rail.

Collector system

One of the subspecies of the two pipe system is called collector wiring. It must have a separate circuit for each device. The collector is used for the central entrance, after which it branches out for the heating system to each apartment.

The choice of the heating system wiring
The choice of the heating system wiring

The types of wiring of the heating system under consideration during operation show positive and negative qualities, including:

  • The temperature will be evenly distributed throughout the rooms.
  • It is used, including with a large area of the apartment.
  • Each circuit can be adjusted independently and separately.
  • Hidden installation process.
  • There are no pressure drops in different areas.
  • Few connections, which improves system reliability.
  • The contours will remain unchanged even if you add new nodes to the system.
  • During installation, which is not always possible for a beginner, it is required to arrange a significant number of strobes.
  • The entire system will incur high costs.
  • There is no way to arrange a natural flow of water.

Warm skirting board

These types of wiring for heating systems are mounted above the baseboard or directly into it. At the same time, they are not visible, since they are completely covered with a decorative panel. If you come across such a scheme for the first time, then few people will understand that we are talking about a heating system.

The choice of the heating system wiring
The choice of the heating system wiring

The main advantages of this design:

  1. After passing through the entire section for warming up, the coolant almost does not lose temperature.
  2. Small dimensions that do not spoil the interior in the room.
  3. Almost instantaneous heating of the equipment throughout the entire circuit.
  4. The work uses materials that are protected from corrosion.
  5. Easy assembly process.
  6. The outer walls are fully warmed up.
  7. The air heats up evenly throughout the room.

But even in this case, one cannot do without disadvantages. Thus, the total length of the pipeline should not exceed 15 meters. This is necessary to improve the efficiency of heat transfer. If at the same time there are very cold conditions from the street side, then a warm baseboard will not work as the main heating. There should be a gap between the skirting board and the furniture, as required by the manufacturers. The total cost is very high, despite the large number of positive aspects.

Dead-end and passing wiring

Dead-end wiring is characterized by the entry of the coolant into the heater, as well as the exit from it on one side. That is, the water falls into a dead end, its movement changes and it leaves the heater. The opposite option in this case will be a passing scheme, according to which water comes out of the device from the back side. Its movement is passing, relative to everything else.

The choice of the heating system wiring
The choice of the heating system wiring

It is the passing option that will have the best efficiency. There will be no formation of stagnation zones, which will be reduced to minimum indicators, which increases the level of heat transfer to each element of the heating system.

Vertical and horizontal

A very simple option, since with horizontal wiring, the pipes depart from the supply line strictly horizontally, and with vertical ones - vertically. There are no difficulties. Their meaning for a private house will be identical. But it will be slightly different when you are in an apartment building.

The choice of the heating system wiring
The choice of the heating system wiring

Here, the horizontal option will allow you to save heat and set the required temperature level by distributing all devices "on one pipe". Heat losses are recorded on their own, for which payment is made.

The vertical distribution of heating pipes allows the location of several components in the house, which makes the control described above null and void.

Influence of building design

The choice of the heating system layout will depend on the structure itself. A single-storey structure in combination with a high roof requires an orientation towards the vertical arrangement of the pipeline and all system components. Even the attic will receive the status of "heated" during operation.

If you have a sloping roof and a basement, a horizontal scheme is perfect, where the boiler will be located exactly in the basement.

Two or more floors in a residential building, regardless of the heating system of piping, their method (upper, lower), has preference in a two-pipe version with vertical risers.

Summing up, we can say that when a certain layout of the heating system pipes is selected, the plan will play a decisive role. It is on it that all the points and essential points used in the subsequent installation should be reflected. This event is best entrusted to a specialist who will perform everything efficiently and on time.

The article was written for the site





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