2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:54
- Heating problems
- Selection rules
- Initial work
- Pipe arrangement
- Correct calculations
- Heating boilers
- Electric option
- Gas heating
- Installation work
- The cost
- Pipe installation rules
Some residents of apartment buildings want to replace central heating with autonomous heating. This is due to the increased cost indicators, as well as the final comfort in terms of coziness and temperature conditions. But this process takes a lot of time and requires a strict procedure. It is especially important to pay attention to the installation work, choosing the best heating for the apartment.
There are practically no problems in private households, which arrange a certain version of the heating system. You can choose a completely different version of the coolant and fuel on which the boiler operates. If necessary, additional equipment can be installed there in the form of a solar collector, a heat pump or, for example, a separate boiler room.
For apartment buildings, you should immediately pay attention to the possible problems that you will have to face:
- The interests of other tenants are violated, who may speak out negatively against such a decision.
- Restrictions are introduced at the legislative level.
- The project should be selected based on the specific circumstances. After all, not each of them can be realized in reality in terms of technical performance or documentary.
The possibility of installing a solid fuel boiler is immediately excluded. In this case, you will have to have an additional room where the material for heating the heating boiler will be stored. In addition, the floor slabs themselves will not be able to withstand significant weight. The danger is created by other variants of flammable liquids, which can lower the level of safety in the apartment. If we take into account the warm floors, then the water version is not allowed for the apartment. For this reason, it is worth paying attention only to electric.
Before starting work, you should consult with a lawyer, who will allow you to give an answer whether it is legal to switch to autonomous heating. It is not uncommon for such decisions to be made exclusively through the courts in order to get rid of the central heating system option.
A reasonable question arises related to what kind of heating to choose for the apartment. Regarding apartment buildings, two types of autonomous heating are selected:
It is very difficult to give an unequivocal answer as to which version of the heating system will look great in the apartment. Each specific issue should be approached individually, taking into account specific circumstances.
Some do not think about such a question at all and it is easier for them to use the central option, proven over the years.
But here it is very difficult to wait for the period when the heat is turned on. The heating seasons are switched off from the working track.
The installation of an electric boiler, or a system of a similar version of a warm floor, is considered to be the most economical due to nightly tariffs. In addition, the latter can be used as an additional source of heat, since it does not depend on the central one, working on electricity. And the entire electric heating system has the property of independence. The water in the system will be heated by connecting to the mains. We can say that this is an advantageous apartment heating.
Anyway, everyone should consider going offline. You don't have to sit in your own apartment and wait for warmth. In addition, a large number of diseases occur during this period.
The initial actions in the transition to autonomous heating are the collection of documentation and its submission to the regulatory authorities. It will serve as the basis for the project.
- Application from the owner for the restructuring.
- Technical passport for the dwelling.
- The project itself, which reflects all the nuances of installation.
- Title deed for the apartment.
- Obtaining consent on paper from each tenant of the house.
You should be prepared for the fact that local authorities will refer to federal law, refusing to make such a decision. An apartment without central heating, in their opinion, cannot fully exist.
But there are other regulatory documents that do not prohibit such manipulations. The main thing is that they meet the technical requirements. If, nevertheless, it is not possible to reach an agreement with the local authorities, you will have to go to the courts of general jurisdiction. It is they who often help residents switch to autonomous heating.
It should be noted that there are several options for the layout of the heating system piping in the apartment. One-pipe can be called as the simplest option for the installation process. True, its effectiveness will be much lower than all other options. The rooms in the apartment are heated evenly. But it is suitable in the case of using an electric boiler and a small apartment.
The two-pipe system will cost a little more due to the fact that the number of pipes purchased is doubled. They are necessary not only for the supply of the coolant, but also for the reverse direction of the cooled liquid to the boiler. It has an additional division depending on where exactly the wiring is carried out - from below or from above. In the first case, water is supplied from the basement, where all the equipment is located. With top wiring, the location is in the attic. In this case, the efficiency of heating the air in the rooms of the apartment will be much higher. A correctly drawn up scheme for installing pipes of the heating system will allow you to do all the work on your own, increasing the quality of heating in the apartment.
To achieve the optimal air temperature in the apartment, proper installation should be carried out. At the same time, special attention is paid to competent calculations of all components.
To begin with, the power of the boiler used in operation is taken together with the area of the apartment. The climate of the region where the person lives is also taken into account. Indeed, some are dominated by elevated temperatures, and sometimes they do not rise above 0 degrees.
Most often, a two-pipe version is implemented in apartments, which will provide the highest level of efficiency during operation. But you will have to make every effort for a quality installation. It will not be superfluous to invite a specialist in this direction to work. Each radiator heats up evenly, which allows you to provide the required temperature level in the room.
In the process of obtaining permits from local governments for the installation of an autonomous heating system, you should visit the store in order to purchase a boiler. It should be enough to heat the entire apartment at the required level. For this purpose, the corresponding formula is applied:
Q = S * P * K1 * K2 * K3 * K4 * K5 * K6 * K7 * R
From the presented formula, S is understood as the area of the apartment, which requires heat supply, and K are the factors that must be applied depending on certain circumstances. Attention should be paid to the table presented, from which it is clear what and how should be counted. R is the reserve power of the heating boiler, selected in the range from 1.15 to 1.25, P is the average power indicator required for each square meter. These data will make it possible to obtain modern heating of houses and apartments.
In addition, you should decide on which option to choose - gas or electric. Each of them has its own characteristics. The greatest interest among the performers is the gas boiler. It is explained by the availability of fuel and efficiency during operation. Among the main advantages are the absence of noise during use during operation, increased safety, maintenance of temperature conditions in the premises, regardless of the level of gas pressure. It is worth noting that such boilers are suitable even in small apartments.
An electric boiler is also suitable as the main source of heat. It can also act as additional heating. They can be located both on the floor and on the wall. They have sufficient advantages such as work efficiency, efficiency, hygiene. But with drops in the power grid, problems may arise with the supply of heat inside the rooms of the apartment.
The most basic question is what kind of heating to make in the apartment? It is worth disassembling an electric heating system for a living room in more detail. In addition to an electric boiler, it can be performed in the form of a warm floor or a heat pump device. During the installation of the heating boiler, all old pipes should be completely removed, replacing everything with a new one.
It is the heat pump that is considered the least expensive. The most suitable variant of the device in this case is "air-air" or "air-water". The equipment works with the lowest energy consumption. Here, heat energy is extracted from the environment and makes it high-potential. Such equipment has environmental properties, and the energy source is independently renewable. It is most effective when installing such a system in the presence of an ambient temperature below -25 degrees.
Despite the expensive pump and all its components, within a certain period of time it is capable of payback. But most often they are purchased for large premises.
A double-circuit boiler can be used here as the main option. It must have a closed combustion chamber. In addition, it is arranged with an electronic ignition, as well as a thermostat, which allows you to control the process of heating the room, introducing certain programs for this. If the rooms in the apartment are large in area, you should consider buying a storage boiler. Warm water will accumulate in it, allowing you not only to wash the dishes in the kitchen, but also to take a shower. The new heating systems for the apartment will work with the greatest efficiency.
Modern equipment for heating systems is the most automated. After careful installation, it can be used almost without interference from the owner. None of the tenants, as well as neighbors, will be disturbed by the operation of such a boiler in an apartment. Moreover, to buy it at a reasonable cost.
During operation, you should be careful, since, although rare, there are cases of explosion of heating boilers. Gas prices for the population are becoming more expensive over time. This also applies in principle to electricity. It is very important to make high-quality ventilation so that all combustion products leave the apartment. They will have to be cleaned over time due to the appearance of oily soot. A coaxial chimney is not particularly useful, when used, an extraneous smell will get inside the apartment.
There are four main steps in how to install a gas-type heating boiler:
- Installation of the boiler itself.
- Disconnection of the old heating system and its complete dismantling.
- Distribution of heating radiators to rooms together with pipes.
- Correct connection of all components to each other. You cannot do without a specialist from the gas service.
Summing up everything that has been said, you can make a sequence of work on the installation of a heating system in an apartment with autonomy. The sequence looks like this:
- Coordination of documentary issues with local authorities is carried out. Otherwise, you will have to go to the courts, considering various options for heating the apartment.
A permit must be obtained from each occupant of the home. They agree with you on the time frame when the installation work will be carried out.
- Additionally, a hole for the chimney is arranged in the case of using a gas boiler. For the electrical version, wiring is provided so that it can withstand all the power supplied during operation.
- There must be a suitable base under the boiler, which will not burn. For this, a certain material is used.
- It will not be superfluous to carry out work on marking all the components and assemblies of the heating system in the apartment. This will allow you to competently draw up a project and carry out installation.
- Specialists are involved to install the gas meter. They have all the permitting documents on hand.
- Fixing the boiler. It can be placed on the floor or on the wall. In the latter case, additional fasteners must be installed.
- Laying pipes, after which they are connected to the heating boiler.
Testable system start-up after connecting and connecting all components, including pipes to radiators.
Regarding the specific cost, everything will be difficult. After all, it is impossible to foresee all the points associated, for example, with the choice of a boiler or pipe material in an apartment. If we take the average indicators, then we can conclude that the price of this issue in Moscow will be about 150 thousand rubles. But this is just design documentation and installation work. All equipment will have to be purchased additionally.
It should be noted that such a high cost should not be intimidating. After all, over time, it will be possible to recoup everything by saving on utility services.
Pipe installation rules
During the subsequent installation of pipes and radiators, certain requirements and rules should be adhered to, including:
- The connection of the heatsinks must be parallel, not serial.
- The thermal head is attached to the return line.
- The batteries are inserted strictly from top to bottom, that is, a diagonal scheme is used.
- The Mayevsky crane is fixed in the upper plug of the batteries.
- As additional components, clip-fasteners, valves on the supply should be used.
- After completing all types of work and connecting the heating boiler, the entire system is pressurized.
- When installing radiators, a level is used.
The article was written for the site
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