How To Properly Install And Assemble An Electrical Shield In An Apartment

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Video: How To Properly Install And Assemble An Electrical Shield In An Apartment

Video: How To Properly Install And Assemble An Electrical Shield In An Apartment
Video: Introduction to Lightning Protection and Earthing/Grounding (Full) 2023, June
How To Properly Install And Assemble An Electrical Shield In An Apartment
How To Properly Install And Assemble An Electrical Shield In An Apartment
  • General questions about electrical panels
  • Installation and construction of the shield
  • We start internal installation
  • Assembly instructions
  • What else do you need to know?
Installation of an electrical panel photo
Installation of an electrical panel photo

The importance of the electrical panel in the apartment in the power supply system of the house is extremely high. Wiring will not be able to function efficiently and fully without proper distribution of electrical energy consumers, and fire and electrical safety will be minimized in the absence of the necessary protection elements. Of course, it will be better if specialists will be engaged in laying wires and installing equipment, but with some study of this issue (this article will help you with this), you will be able to independently install the electrical panel with your own hands without much effort and cost by assembling a simple electrical circuit. The main thing is to figure out what power supply schemes are, what equipment you need to choose, how to calculate electrical loads, how to distribute them correctly and evenly.

General questions about electrical panels

There are currently two types of electrical panels. The first - old and fading into oblivion - a panel with fuses (or plugs), which were disposable, and they had to be unscrewed for replacement, and modern devices equipped with systems of packet switches (automatic machines). Of course, it is better to use modern technologies, since they surpass outdated systems in terms of reliability, safety and durability, and they take up less space, but they are not repaired. In stores, you can buy shields both with built-in circuit breakers, and empty "boxes" and already install the necessary equipment yourself.

An electrical panel in an apartment, the power supply scheme of which can be varied, and the number of consumers and their power may increase over time, should be selected with additional places for circuit breakers.

An introductory machine, usually capable of simultaneously disconnecting both "phase" and "zero", should be selected based on the total load of the apartment. The magnitude of its current and protective characteristics is higher than that of auxiliary machines. As a rule, an automatic machine for 32-40 amperes (about 7 kW) is suitable for two- and three-room apartments, if the load is less, the machine can be taken for 25 or 16 amperes.

As for the auxiliary circuit breakers installed on the "phase", they are necessary to protect a separate room or device. Experts advise installing such an automatic machine for every consumer whose power exceeds 1.5 kW (heating tanks, washing machines, etc.). A table of approximate loads of electrical appliances is located below.

Table 1 - approximate capacities of household appliances.

Power, W

Electric kettle Boiler Vacuum cleaner Iron Fridge

Installation and construction of the shield

The electrical panel for apartment abb or legrand is of two types:

  1. Closed (recessed into the wall).
  2. Open (the shield is attached directly to the vertical surface).

The choice of the type of installation mainly depends on the type of wiring - if the open-type wiring is ideal, the installation of an overhead shield will be ideal - such a shield does not require special preparation of the place, fastening to the wall is carried out using ordinary dowel-nails or self-tapping screws (it all depends on the material of the wall) …

If the wiring is of a hidden type (i.e. built into the wall), then the best option would be to install a built-in shield. Here everything is more difficult, since you have to hammer the walls. The main thing is not to forget to make sure that the thickness of the wall allows you to install the shield. After creating a niche, it is coated with a fixing solution of gypsum or alabaster, and already a "box" is built into such a bed. It is more convenient to use a plastic shield. The upper part should contain input machines, under which the counter is located. It is secured with screws. The installation of the meter is carried out after the end of the work related to the wiring device. This is due to the filling.

The electrical panel must be mounted on a hard surface - in a place where it is easy to access and maintain.

According to the norms, the location of the shield, it is installed away from water and gas pipelines. It should be located on a flat wall surface with a slope of no more than 1.5 degrees at a height of about 1.5 meters from the floor. If it is not possible to locate the meter far from the places of potential damage, then it can be placed in a cabinet equipped with an observation window. Fastening of wires is allowed using bandage.

For wiring in the attic, it is necessary to leave a short length of wire, because it is not allowed to twist the wire into a coil. If you are installing electrical wiring in the attic, the cable is placed in a metal pipe with grounding.

As for the materials from which the shields are made, it can be either metal or heat-resistant plastic. The second option is more convenient in installation and operation, safer, and its appearance is attractive.

So, with the installation of the box itself, we dismantled it, now we will figure out how the circuit of the electrical panel is arranged.


In principle, all electrical circuits of panels are of the same type, but there are main factors by which they are assembled, these include:

  • the number of consumers of electrical energy;
  • total power consumption of electrical energy;
  • the power of each consumer;
  • place of installation of the electrical panel;
  • number of phases;
  • the presence of a grounding conductor;
  • the presence of a metering unit for electrical energy.

The voltage is supplied to the input automaton (it is better if it is two-pole) and goes to a single-phase electricity metering unit, from where it is fed to the RCD. Further, there is a phase splitting and direct distribution of loads using automatic switches and additional RCDs. For example, there will be machines separately for lighting, for sockets and for powerful consumers.

The device of the electrical panel with a three-phase power supply system is similar, only the introductory machine, the RCD and the electric meter will be three-phase, and the whole system will be larger both in terms of dimensions and in the number of machines and connecting conductors.

We start internal installation

Now let's figure out how to properly assemble the electrical shield. First and foremost, a din-rail is installed in the shield using self-tapping screws. From itself it is a metal plate to which all switching devices will subsequently be attached. To create the required length, it can be easily cut with a hacksaw for metal.

In addition to the din-rails, terminal blocks are attached to the shield body (in another way, distribution busbars). Their role is to connect neutral conductors. If an apartment or house is of an old model and the entire system is made only with a phase (3 phases) and a working zero (performed with a blue wire), one terminal block is enough. If the system is made according to the rules and there is an additional yellow-green conductor (protective zero or ground), then it is necessary to install another bus. At the moment, there are tires on sale, the design of which allows them to be mounted on a din rail, like machines.

After mounting the din-rails, we proceed to fixing the circuit breakers. The modern design will make it possible to do this very quickly, it is enough to pull off the latching device on the upper side of the machine with a flat screwdriver, put the machine on the DIN rail and remove the screwdriver. Removal is carried out in the same way.

Assembly instructions

The following is a step-by-step description of how to assemble a single-phase electrical panel:

  1. We strictly observe safety measures!
  2. We mount the required number of DIN rails to the shield.
  3. After fastening them, according to the selected scheme, we install the required number of machines, RCDs, zero buses. It should be remembered that according to the rules, the introductory machine should be placed at the top left.
  4. We install an electric meter (if space permits). This is a specific equipment that requires special knowledge, so it is better to just bring the wires to it and call the controller from Energosbyt, who will make the correct connection, and at the same time draw up an act and seal the meter.
  5. We connect an introductory machine. It will be better if the phases are brought to it from below. In the future, this will simplify the task of installing jumpers between machines.
  6. We combine all machines and RCDs with special jumpers. In the question: "How to assemble an electrical panel?" this point is worth paying attention to.

    sborka raspredelitelnogo schita
    sborka raspredelitelnogo schita

The connection can be made in three ways:

  1. With the help of stranded copper wires with ferrules type NSHVI.
  2. Make U-shaped jumpers from pieces of copper wire with your own hands.
  3. Using special insulated busbars called combs. Such a bus is convenient in terms of installation and does not take up much space, plus several times it reduces the number of connecting wires.

Following actions:

  1. After all the necessary steps for assembling the electrical panel have been completed, they proceed to cutting and connecting the conductors.
  2. With cutting, everything is simple - we clean off the excess insulation with a knife.
  3. After removal, it is advisable to solder the bare ends or equip with special crimps, which are also better to be soldered.
  4. We connect the wires to the machines - the terminals must be tightened well with a screwdriver, a weak contact will subsequently lead to heating and destruction of live parts.
  5. The grounding conductor always passes the circuit breakers directly from the grounding bus.
  6. The neutral conductor is connected to the neutral bus. If a conventional machine is used as protection (except for the input one) - zero goes directly, if protection is performed by an RCD - zero goes through it to the connected line.

    shield device
    shield device

What else do you need to know?

Installing an electrical panel and assembling it is not only the ability to correctly assemble circuits. You also need to know some of the nuances in order not to regret the time and effort spent later.

  1. In no case should you save on the purchased shield! The cheapness of the shield clearly speaks of the low-quality materials from which it is made. Cheap plastics turn yellow and become brittle over time. Refractoriness can also be low.
  2. It is better to buy a shield with a supply of modules. There should be an opportunity to maneuver upwards.
  3. It is necessary to sign the installed machines! After a while, you may not even remember which machine is for what. Often, adhesive paper is included with the electrical panel, which serves just for these purposes.
  4. Six months later, after assembly, it is necessary to broach the contacts.
  5. Periodically test the RCD by pressing the appropriate button.
  6. Better to buy equipment from well-known brands. In such panels, everything is prepared for convenient, high-quality and safe cabling and installation of protective devices. For example, assembling a legrand or abb electrical panel will take less time due to the availability of the necessary components.
  7. For convenience, we place the distribution busbars on different sides. Grounding - below, zero - at the top.
  8. If there are children in the house, the shield must be bought with a lock or equipped with one.


It should be recalled that it is necessary to assemble and install the Legrand, ABB electrical panel or equipment of another company strictly on the disconnected power line, after checking the absence of voltage.

To connect the assembled shield to the operating system, it is necessary to involve employees of the relevant organizations. For apartment buildings, these are representatives of the HOA or ZhEK.

As a result, after the end of the entire assembly and connection process, you need to close or screw the cover and check your work by supplying voltage to the live parts of your shield.

wiring diagram with three phases
wiring diagram with three phases
Single phase circuit
Single phase circuit
variant of the wiring diagram in the apartment
variant of the wiring diagram in the apartment

Especially for the site repair the apartment yourself.

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