2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 22:24
- Pipe requirements
- Types of pipes
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Surface leveling
- Pipe laying and fastening
- Underfloor heating assembly rules
- Filling the screed
Heating in a private house or apartment does not stand still, but is constantly being improved. New methods and techniques are being added that require a certain amount of experience in the work. The greatest efficiency of room heating is a water floor heating system. The existing communications are laid in a screed. During the operation of the system, heat is transferred to the floor covering, and later to the interior of the entire room. Moreover, such heating can be called the most economical.
The heat carrier is mainly water. But some people use antifreeze or ethylene glycol. It is the correct choice of pipes that will contribute to the efficient operation of the entire heating system. When visiting stores, you should pay attention to certain requirements that apply to the material:
The duration of the operational period. In case of purchasing low-quality products, they will have to be repaired or dismantled over time.
This will lead to high financial costs.
- The strength of the material. The operating pressure indicators, as well as temperature fluctuations, will depend on it.
- Expansion coefficient. The smaller it is, the better. There should be no increase in the diameter of the pipes in the floor screed under the influence of pressure and elevated temperature. The structural integrity of the flooring and the screed itself may be compromised.
- High heat dissipation. This item will allow you to transfer heat to the inside with maximum efficiency.
- Environmental friendliness. In the event of an accident or breakdown, the pipeline should not have a negative impact on human health.
- Minimum bend radius.
Types of pipes
The pipes in the floor screed can be used in completely different ways. Basically, materials are classified according to the manufacturing method. If it comes to copper pipes, then you should immediately prepare a decent amount of money. These pipes are the most expensive. But at the same time, they can be laid without consequences in the screed of the concrete floor under the floor covering. The strength of the product is very high, it does not allow oxygen to penetrate inside. The surface of copper pipes does not undergo corrosive changes, but now such systems are no longer used. Plastic pipes are widely used.
It is important to know that it is necessary to control the temperature of the fluid in the pipes and avoid lifting more than 50 of the degrees.
Vapor-proof plastic is used in polymer pipes. It is based on materials such as polybutylene and polyethylene. They are able to withstand not only internal but also external pressure. In addition, they also do not corrode. But they definitely do not have enough hardness, since they are easily exposed to external influences, including cutting. For underfloor heating, they are used to a lesser extent, although they have a low price.
When installing polypropylene pipes in a floor heating system, there must be a certain temperature level in it. The minimum indicator is 15 degrees.
Composite pipes made of metal-plastic have a high level of strength and corrosion resistance. They differ little in characteristics from copper pipes, but they are much cheaper. The pipe has three layers:
- Internal (polymer). Allows you to easily transport the coolant, while protecting against the appearance of scale and corrosion.
- Medium (aluminum). Withstands high temperature conditions, and also retains the original shape of the pipe.
Upper (polymer). Protects aluminum from external mechanical stress.
Advantages and disadvantages
According to the operation of the underfloor heating system, we can say that all the heat initially enters the concrete screed, which, after warming up, transfers it inside the room. And it doesn't matter which option is used in the apartment, electric or water floor heating. But the installation of pipes in a screed has both its advantages and disadvantages, which should be discussed in more detail before starting the installation.
The advantages include:
- Warm air flows from the floor to the ceiling. Consequently, a comfortable walking environment is created.
- Faster room heating than conventional batteries.
- Even distribution of heat throughout the room.
Cost savings due to the large heat exchange area.
But we must not forget about the negative manifestation, which most often occurs due to the fact that the technology of pouring the screed and laying pipes is not fully observed. There is no access to the contour of the pipes, and, therefore, if repair is necessary, you will have to break the entire screed and remove the floor covering. If the installation is in violation of the requirements, then there is a high probability of leakage to the lower floors. And the installation process itself requires certain knowledge. Not everyone will be able to independently arrange pipes for the underfloor heating system.
Before installing the pipes of the underfloor heating system, the base should be carefully prepared. It should be perfectly flat without defects, cracks, potholes. Along the entire perimeter of the room, a height difference of up to 10 mm is allowed. Subsequently, all this is already closed by the subsequent finishing filling of the screed.
Before starting the distribution of the solution, all communications must be laid and exposed in their places. There shouldn't be any debris or even dust on the surface.
Do not forget about insulating panels when the room is located above the basement or garage. Heat should be given only to the interior of the room, and not wasted on absorbing cold air from below. This will allow for the most efficient heat distribution.
Pipe laying and fastening
When we start laying the heating pipes in the screed of the apartment, which were chosen for the underfloor heating system, it should be remembered that the distance between the turns must be the same. This will transfer heat to the interior with better uniformity. The most optimal styling methods are a spiral (snail) or a snake. There should be no joints or cuts. You should get a monolithic site. If it is necessary to bend pipes in certain areas, it is best to use pipe benders. But everything will depend on pipes, their plasticity and capabilities.
Heating pipes should be laid in the floor according to the scheme that is performed in advance. For fixing the elements to the floor, special strips are used. They already have the correct slot diameter. In isolated areas, clips or paper clips are used. The most convenient and profitable option is to fix the pipes in the grooves that have already been cut in the panel insulation. This suggests that the thermal insulation layer must be performed without fail.
Underfloor heating assembly rules
Heating pipes in the floor under the screed allow you to abandon all the usual batteries, which only create a negative for the interior of the room. Among other things, in this way, the system transfers more heat to the room than heating batteries, saving money. The entire floor covering becomes a radiator. Such a system can be arranged in absolutely any room, while observing the sequence of actions and installation requirements.
There are certain rules by which the underfloor heating is assembled. Only if they are observed, floor heating in an apartment in a screed will have the best efficiency.
- Leveling the surface. For this, a self-leveling floor is made on top of the floor slab. "Rough" floor in this case get rid of irregularities, cracks and other defects. The heating pipes in the floor screed will be positioned correctly and evenly.
- Installation of a waterproofing layer. As a material, a coating or roll waterproofing agent is usually used. If mastics are taken, then they should be water-based, which in turn will also act as an adhesive for insulation.
- Installation of thermal insulation. An excellent option would be extruded polystyrene foam. It will also serve as a guiding frame for heating pipes in the apartment screed. The minimum insulation layer should be 10 mm.
- The next step in installation is pipe laying. Gaps and joints of elements should be avoided. The optimum usable pipe diameter is 1.6 cm.
Reinforcing screed device. At the same time, attention is drawn to the material of the pipe for heating the apartment under the screed, since heavy loads, for example, on polyethylene materials will lead to deformation and damage. But this stage should be discussed in more detail.
Filling the screed
Floor screed heating will be effective if the mortar is properly poured. It will depend on the base, its defects, as well as on the area of the entire room. The laid pipes must be completely covered with concrete screed. At the same time, we must not forget about expansion joints, without which the floor surface will give holes. In the process of heating the solution, the screed may undergo deformation. The expansion joints are filled with polyurethane. As for the choice of pipe in these sections, it is best to use a corrugated pipe.
The concrete layer is usually 30-70 mm. It is prepared from dry mixes, which contain all the necessary components, fillers, additives, plasticizers. If desired, the solution is prepared independently. At the same time, he should strictly observe the proportions for the amount of sand, cement, water and other components. A well-prepared solution will affect the screed. If you forget about the proportions and do everything by eye, then later you will not do without the appearance of cracks, shrinkage areas and other defects. We'll have to dismantle and start over. The heating of the floor and the entire heated room will be uneven, and the pipeline itself will not be able to serve the specified amount of time.
This technology is perfect not only for private construction, apartments, but also industrial facilities. After the floor has been poured with concrete, it is necessary to allow time for it to dry completely. Usually the period is 3-4 weeks. Everything will depend on the solution itself.
As soon as the surface is dry, you can walk on it with a sander, which will contribute to uniform smoothness and evenness. All that remains is to lay the floor covering, which was chosen for the warm floor option.
The decision to fill the heating pipes on the floor is made at the stage of overhaul in the room. This can be done when building houses, but few people use it. Pipes are essential when performing floor screed in an apartment. The final quality will depend on their choice. They must completely fit into the future screed.
If you need to pour heating pipes into a screed, then first you should consult a specialist. They will tell you all the pitfalls of installation, and also point out possible shortcomings in the end. This is worth listening to in order to get only positive qualities.