2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 22:24
- Types of screeds
- Materials and tools
- Determination of thickness
- Basic activities
- Additional layers
- Exposing lighthouses
- Pouring process
By arranging a concrete screed, we not only have the existing irregularities and inaccuracies in the base, but also create an excellent platform for flooring of any kind. Anyone can cope with the installation work. To do this, it is enough to stock up on all the necessary equipment and materials, depending on the type of concrete screed. Filling is carried out in the shortest possible time and does not require serious knowledge in this direction.
Types of screeds
There are a huge number of types of screeds. They all differ among themselves according to various criteria. It is worth paying attention to the most basic of them:
- The device is a concrete screed with a layer of moisture insulation. Suitable for rooms with high humidity levels (toilet, kitchen, bathroom). Even large volumes of liquid will not be scary if they fall on the floor. But we must not forget about the waterproofing layer.
- Knitted tie. It is in great demand due to the simplicity of the device. It will be sufficient to pour the solution over the floor and level it evenly over the entire area in the apartment. You don't need to do anything other than that.
- With an additional fill layer. When using floor materials such as laminate or linoleum, it will not be superfluous to make a self-leveling layer on top of the constructed concrete floor screed. This will avoid deformation of the material after laying and in the presence of even minor irregularities on the substrate.
With a layer of insulation. He is satisfied from above above the ground, until the moment he pours the floor in the apartment. This screed option is suitable for differentiating basements from residential ones, as well as others that have their own heating system.
Each specific option implies the choice of a specific material and tool for work. This should be approached individually in order to complete everything according to the technology. It should be premature to decide which floor to fill in the apartment in order to know about what mixture to fill the floors in the apartment with.
Materials and tools
Before making a concrete floor screed, you should think about another very important question - the best way to fill the floor. There are a huge number of mixtures on the market that are used in work. Often, the main components are gypsum and cement. Each of the options has its own characteristics and characteristics, and this is how they differ from each other.
In addition, it is customary to add sand and polymers. The latter are designed to impart certain qualities to the finished solution (frost resistance, moisture resistance, plasticity, strength, etc.). We must not forget about water. But you should be careful with its quantity. Excess water will make the solution more fluid, but you can think about strength, as it will noticeably decrease. But even a smaller volume should not be allowed into the solution, otherwise the surface will begin to crumble. The proportions and technology should be followed exactly, how to fill the screed in the apartment in order to get a positive result.
All measures for the preparation and mixing of the solution cannot be performed if there is no necessary tool at hand, which is customary to include:
- A bucket or other container for mixing.
- Water and building level, laser level.
- Drill with attachments.
- Ruler, tape measure, pencil.
- Rule, trowel, spatula.
But this is not a complete list of what will come in handy when a concrete floor screed is being installed. Everything will depend on the specific type of work and the requirements.
Determination of thickness
Before you fill the floors with concrete screed in an apartment, you need to think about its thickness. This is a very important indicator that will be responsible not only for quality and strength, but also for the amount of costs for the purchase of materials. This indicator will be influenced by certain factors, among which the most important are:
- The need for a layer of hydro and thermal insulation.
- Surface, base, specific type (floor slab, soil, etc.).
- Required strength of the finished screed.
When determining the thickness of the screed, special attention should be paid, for example, to the norms for floor loads. In addition to this, all external loads (walking, furniture, interior) should not exert negative pressure on the screed being constructed.
All project documentation, if it is a new building, must have an indication of the permissible screed thickness.
When the old coating is removed and a new one is laid, but it is worth adhering to the parameters of the previous one. A cement screed in an apartment is usually arranged for a thickness of 25-80 mm. Less is not allowed, but more is also not recommended. Everything must be within the normal range in order to obtain the desired technical characteristics and properties.
It is best to use cement of the minimum grade M400. But everything else will depend on the situation and the specific type of work on filling the floor in the apartment with your own hands. The thickness will indicate the required amount of material for installation, made the appropriate calculation.
If there is a desire to know how to fill the floors in an apartment with your own hands, then you should follow several main steps in sequence. The very first and foremost is the preparation of the surface for subsequent work. It will not be superfluous to attract an assistant to help, with whom everything will be much faster and better.
To fill the floor with concrete in an apartment, not only a new base of floor slabs, but also an old surface is suitable. Even a wooden floor can be filled with prepared mortar. At the same time, it is important to know all the subtleties and nuances of how to properly fill the floor screed in the apartment. In a new building, everything is much simpler, since it will be sufficient to remove large debris and vacuum the surface. Several difficulties can arise when pouring a reinforced floor over an old coating.
When the base does not have chips, lagging elements, crumbling, then it should only be covered with a layer of primer, or two, and then proceed to the next stage. All significant damage, potholes and even bumps must be repaired. Only in this case it is possible to fill the concrete floors in the apartment with high quality. Here you will need to take an additional tool to eliminate such defects. All pieces of the old floor are removed from the work site. When this is done, you can start applying the primer.
After the base has been covered with a layer of primer, it is necessary to allow time for the floors to dry completely before pouring sand and cement into the floors.
More advice from experts can be obtained when concrete floors with a reinforced top layer are mounted on a wooden base. If the technology is not followed, then within a short time the floor will begin to crack. We'll have to start everything from the very beginning.
Existing boards with rot or spoiled by fungus, mold, should be replaced with new ones. At the joints of the boards, they are treated with putty, polyurethane foam or, for example, a sealant. Everything will depend on the possibilities.
After that, all boards are covered with paint, which has properties to protect the surface from excessive moisture. We must not forget about the waterproofing layer. It is in this sequence that all actions are performed to fill the screed in the apartment.
A separate category is the ground cover. If vegetation is present, it must be removed completely. After this, a certain thickness is filled with sand or expanded clay. The stage of ramming this material is important before filling with mortar. When the screed is performed in the bathroom, you should worry about conducting communications and pipes in the room.
The base of the floor can be insulated in various ways. The most demanded is expanded clay backfill. But it is worth noting that this material is suitable for private households. For apartments, the best option is polystyrene. When constructing an insulating layer, such a layer must have a sufficient level of rigidity to meet all the requirements.
No substrate should be exposed to excess moisture. This leads to the appearance of negative factors, premature failure of materials and the entire screed as a whole. Roofing material will help protect the base. An alternative would be a polyethylene film of sufficient thickness. The overlap of each subsequent layer of material should be at least 15 cm. Do not forget about the overlap on the walls and decorative elements in the room. Here, 10 cm is enough. Subsequently, after the floor screed is installed in the apartment, the excess parts of the waterproofing material are removed using a clerical knife. If this layer begins to dock with the laid pipes, an additional sealant is applied for better quality.
A waterproofing layer should be mandatory in bathrooms, kitchens and toilets. Other rooms are equipped with them for better protection from moisture from the basement.
Reinforcement can act as an additional layer. On a concrete floor, the mesh will fit just right. It should have small cells if laid on a ground surface. The mesh is made of metal and is included in the composition for pouring floors. Alternatively, you can use a special wire. Everything will depend not only on the area of the room, but also on other features of the installation.
If you need to get an answer on how to properly fill the screed in an apartment, you should adhere to the technology. She must go along with the performer at each stage. It is very important to put in the utmost patience and effort to get the desired result.
The first step is to start the markup. The zero level is determined. For this, a horizontal line is drawn, which will be the base. The distance (vertically) to the floor is measured from it every 40-50 cm. The thickness of the screed is subtracted from the resulting minimum. The result should be marked towards the floor from the baseline, after which all points are connected to each other. The resulting horizontal line will be considered the zero level. After that, you can proceed to the next stage - fixing on the basis of the beacons.
For lighthouses, there are a large number of methods and options, as well as materials. If this is pouring a screed in an apartment, then slats would be the best option. They should be distributed evenly throughout the room. This is what will allow you to get an answer on how to fill the screed in the apartment with your own hands correctly.
The lighthouses are mounted on mortar, which are laid on the base. If additional fixation is required, self-tapping screws are used in the work. The location of the first rail is about 20-25 cm from the far wall of the room from the entrance. All subsequent elements are fixed in increments of 100-120 cm. Everything will depend on the tool used for leveling. It should be at least 15-20 cm larger than the step.
For pouring it is necessary to choose the correct proportions of concrete for pouring the floor. But in order not to think about it, it is easier to buy a ready-made mixture and add the required amount of water to it. For this, there is an instruction from the manufacturer, which is displayed on each package. You can easily choose the composition suitable for the job. This will not force you to think about the best way to fill the floors in the apartment. The mixture contains the optimal content of all components required for pouring the floor screed.
When the volume of the room is large, then the concrete can be ordered ready-made, which will be delivered at the right time. Dry concrete for screed is necessary for long-term work. Water is added to the required volume and it is used as intended.
The solution is poured over the exposed beacons. In this case, the time during which the solution begins to set is taken into account. Basically, after one hour it will be problematic to level the mixture over the surface.
You cannot add water to a solution that has begun to dry out or has already dried up. All characteristics of the operation process immediately decrease, or may disappear altogether.
The filling process is as follows:
- Initially, pouring occurs between those beacons that are as far as possible from the entrance.
- Leveling occurs. For this, a rule is used. It will not be superfluous to take a level and check the level of the solution on the base. If concrete is not enough, then it should be added in the right amount. Do not be afraid to put out more solution than you should. All surplus can be easily removed and pulled to the entrance.
- Further filling occurs in a similar way.
Removal of beacons occurs a day after the installation. The resulting voids are easily sealed with a solution. All these points will tell you how to fill the floor screed in the apartment.
Finally, the concrete floors are trowelled. It is performed only when the solution is completely dry. A grinder is used here as a special equipment. Any topcoat can be applied to the resulting surface without restrictions.
This suggests that there are no difficulties and problems in how to fill the floor in the apartment. Installation takes a minimum amount of time, especially if there are assistants. It is important that when pouring the floor, the proportions are maintained at the proper level. In order to get a high-quality concrete mix for floor screed, it is better to purchase a ready-made mix, to which the required amount of water is added.
Technology does not stand still. Now there are enough components that contribute to obtaining the best solution in terms of quality and strength. Instead of the usual reinforced mesh, fiber is used. It weighs much less, and the plasticity increases markedly.
With a grinder, you can grout a base with an area of 50 m 2 within an hour. It takes very little time, but the importance of the stage is great.