2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 22:24
- Screed classification
- Foundation preparation
- Installation of beacons
- Subtleties of reinforcement
- Mixing the solution
- Screed installation
- Tips from a specialist
Under a variety of floor coverings, a concrete floor screed is an excellent leveling option. This is due to the very simple installation, long service life and excellent manifestation qualities. At the same time, the floor becomes level, suitable for the subsequent installation of floor screed in the apartment. All possible defects are eliminated with a solution. It is worth paying attention to the fact that in the event that a floor screed is installed, the technology must be followed without deviations. Only then can a reliable foundation be obtained.
A concrete screed is a base that acts as a surface for any kind of floor covering. Installation can be done in various ways, which differ depending on the situation.
A screed is necessary not only in order to level the base, smooth out all existing defects, create a surface with an even distribution of the load, but also increase the strength of the entire floor. Since a liquid solution is used during the installation process, such a screed is called "wet".
It is very important to correctly and carefully approach the choice of the mixture for work. After all, not everyone knows how to make a concrete floor. It will not be superfluous to contact specialists. Everything will depend on the volume and quality required. In addition, a concrete floor with your own hands does not require special knowledge during installation. So the mixture will play a role.
All mixing proportions are indicated on each package for the mixture, as well as recommendations from the manufacturer. It is enough to read them, study them and start executing them.
There are a huge number of types and types of concrete screeds. You should pay attention to the most basic of them:
- Bound. The mixed mixture is poured directly onto the substrate, which has been treated with a deep penetration primer. The adhesion will be maximum, and subsequently such a surface will be able to withstand significant loads.
- With a layer of insulation. This is necessary to obtain a floor with high performance. Among the options, a warm floor is distinguished (for reflecting and preserving heat inside the room. The screed is also called "floating", which has excellent sound and thermal insulation qualities. True, the strength is slightly lower than other analogues. Under the influence of external loads, destruction can occur.
- With a separating layer. The floor screed is arranged only on top of the waterproofing layer. Here the materials are roll, painting materials. There are requirements for the level of thickness, which should not be less than 3 cm. Strength is also reduced, but the properties of waterproofing are encouraging.
As for strengthening the concrete floor screed, there are two ways:
Fiber addition. The surface quality becomes higher and installation takes much less time due to the component used itself, which is added to the solution when mixing. In addition, the screed becomes more plastic, which contributes to its even distribution over the entire surface during pouring. Cracks almost never appear after drying, the main thing is to observe all the stages and sequence in the implementation of the technology of the floor screed device on the concrete base. In addition, the cost is significantly reduced due to the use of fiberglass. The reinforcing mesh pulls about 1.5-2.0 cu from the pocket. for every square meter. But fiber - only 0.2-0.3 cu. It is very important to adhere to the requirements for the amount of addition of the component to the solution. When calculated, the concrete will turn out to be tiny.
Using a reinforcing mesh. It is very popular among performers. Mesh cells are usually taken in the range of 40-50 mm. Laying is done not on the base itself, but on exposed props, which can be wooden bars. In addition to positive features, one can also encounter the disadvantages of using such a material to strengthen a concrete screed. Cracks may remain during shrinkage despite the presence of mesh. Over time, the metal used begins to oxidize, corrode, and deteriorate. The performance is reduced.
Now we need to dwell on the very technology of the device of the concrete floor screed in the apartment. First you need to decide on the conditions under which the installation is performed. Consider the option of a subgrade.
In the absence of a basement or basement, it is necessary to select the soil to a depth of about 50 cm. After that, sand ("pillow") is poured inside with a layer of 10 cm. Be sure to tamp it. Next, gravel is poured. In a thickness of about 20 cm, concrete is poured together with expanded clay. This is necessary to create a certain temperature on the surface.
When everything hardens, we proceed to waterproofing. Here you can buy roofing material or plastic wrap of the appropriate thickness. Any material should go a little on the wall, above the layer of filling the solution.
When installing on top of an existing screed that has already served its life, it should be removed to the maximum. The reasons for this are as follows:
No old surface can guarantee quality and integrity. Delamination, cracking or deformation occurs. All this will subsequently affect the poured screed.
- The permissible loads on the floor slabs must be adhered to, especially for older buildings. There are dynamic and static load parameters. In the first case, it is within 150 kg, in the second - 350-400 per square meter. If a concrete screed is made 50 mm thick, then its weight will be 100 kg per 1m 2.
- Raising the floor level strongly will shorten the distance to the ceiling. But it is already so insignificant as to lose precious centimeters.
When dismantling the old screed, you should be careful so that the overlap remains intact. The work uses such a device for screed floors, such as a perforator. After that, you should clean up fragments of old concrete, debris and other elements that are not related to work.
For a tied screed, the grooves should be cleaned, the cracks should be cut at least 5 mm so that later the concrete solution could get into them without obstacles.
All other screed options require initial base repair. There should be no voids under the waterproofing layer. Otherwise, they will become a place of condensation accumulation. To eliminate defects, a prepared repair compound is used. If there are too many of them, they have a significant volume, then polyurethane foam will do.
After that, without fail, a primer is used to cover the base.
Floor slabs get rid of dust, increasing the level of adhesion. In addition, the moisture itself will not be so actively absorbed from the solution. This preparatory point is very important. The distribution of the primer over the surface is carried out using a roller. If there are hard-to-reach areas, a brush will help. The expansion of the concrete screed will be compensated by a damper tape that is laid along the perimeter of the room. If you follow all these points, then no one will have any questions about how to make a concrete floor with your own hands.
Installation of beacons
The concrete floor screed must have a horizontal surface after drying. The installation of beacons helps to achieve this. They will help to make high-quality leveling of the solution over the surface.
Simplification of work is associated with the use of a laser level. It will be quite simple to determine the baseline from which the calculations will be made. Instead, a cheaper option is a water level. With him, work should be done in the following sequence:
- Determine the highest angle in the room, where an arbitrary mark is made on the wall above it (for example, one and a half meters from the floor).
- Similar marks are made using a level on the walls throughout the room. Subsequently, they are connected to each other using a ruler.
- From the baseline, measurements are taken to floor level in the room. The optimal distance between them is 50 cm. The main thing is that the stripes are located vertically.
The minimum distance from the measurement to the floor is the highest area on the base. The screed layer, its thickness, is taken away from it. Usually this parameter is taken within 30 mm. Everything will depend on the surface and the desired result. Thus, we get the marks of the zero level, which should be connected to each other. All calculations are based on the baseline.
There are times when there may be sections in height exceeding the zero level throughout the room. To avoid this, it is necessary to pull the threads from one edge to the other and establish such irregularities. If they are, you will have to shift the zero level by a certain distance.
Beacons are installed from the zero level. In their capacity, there can be metal profiles, called beacon profiles, capable of arranging a full-fledged concrete floor in an apartment. While working as a rule, when leveling the mortar, they are able to withstand this load. In addition, self-tapping screws are popular, which are screwed in over the area in the room. To the extreme lighthouse from the wall, a distance of 25-30 cm must be maintained.
The line is pulled from the zero level marks so that there is no sagging. In certain places, a hole is made in the base, where the dowel is driven in and the self-tapping screw is screwed in to the set value. Its top cap should be flush with the zero level. A cord is pulled along the top of the caps of the screws. The step of installing such beacons under the screed device under the floors is 35-40 cm. If in the future the beacons remain in the screed, then instead of a cord, it will be optimal to use wire. This will create a kind of additional layer of reinforcement.
Subtleties of reinforcement
When implementing a concrete floor screed, there are many nuances to be considered. This is especially true for a thick layer of mortar when reinforcing. When placing a metal mesh with cells of 50-100 mm, there are a lot of errors when we lay concrete floors. Do not lay the mesh directly on the floor or additionally arranged layers of waterproofing. For the benefits of reinforcement to be, the material should ideally be located in the middle of the poured layer of mortar. In this case, not everyone knows how to make a concrete floor. Special polymer stands are available in stores for sale. The height can be set independently or the required options are purchased. Here you should do without wooden props. Reinforcement should be carried out before the installation and location of beacons.
Mixing the solution
Currently, few people independently mix cement and sand to prepare a solution. This takes time, and the proportions are not always exactly observed. They were replaced by ready-made building mixtures. It is enough to add the required amount of water according to the manufacturer's instructions. If everything is done efficiently and correctly, then the result will delight everyone.
Some people believe that the more cement is added to the mortar, the higher the quality of the concrete output will be. But this is a serious mistake, since after drying, the solution begins to crack, crumble, crumble. He could not gain strength due to the small amount of water. All norms must be reflected in reality.
When self-preparing the mixture, all components are mixed until a homogeneous mass is obtained, after which they are added to the required amount of water. For every 5 kg of the resulting mixture, approximately 1 liter of water should be poured. The technology for installing a concrete floor screed must be observed at each of the stages, especially when it comes to the use of mechanized equipment (concrete mixer). In addition, in this case, a half-strength solution is obtained than when using a shovel or improvised means.
It will not be superfluous to use an assistant who will knead the solution at the moment when the other begins to pour out the solution and distribute it over the surface.
If concrete floors are to be laid, installation is very simple without any serious knowledge. But at the same time, attention should be paid to the correctness of the implementation of all preparatory measures. The subsequent quality depends on them. There are certain subtleties that each performer should adhere to:
- The optimum room temperature is 15-25 degrees. You can work at +5, but in this case, the time for concrete curing will increase. To avoid cracking, avoid mounting at higher temperatures. The top layer will begin to dry much faster.
- When installing a floor screed using technology in an apartment, assistants are involved in the work. They will allow you to prepare the solution when pouring, so that it does not dry out prematurely.
- Start of work - from the far corner to the entrance to the premises. For the uniformity of the screed and its strength, it is necessary to carry out the work within the maximum compressed period of time, to keep within one day.
- Pay attention to the fact that there are no voids left where there is no solution. They are sealed with a trowel. All air bubbles should come out of the solution. This will help "bayonet" with a shovel or trowel.
It remains only to draw the rule along the guides (beacons), distributing the solution evenly over the entire surface. Surplus can be easily removed already at the end of the room where the installation is being carried out.
If everything is done efficiently and the floor is screed, the technology will give a positive result. Subsequently, after complete drying, you can install any kind of flooring.
Tips from a specialist
All subsequent types of work cannot be started earlier than two weeks after pouring. Recommendations for complete drying are prescribed on the packaging of the mixture. You can not resort to early drying. It is water for concrete and adhesion to the substrate that is key. You can periodically wet the surface if premature drying is visible. A dampened roller or spray bottle is suitable for this. There should be no drafts and mechanical effects on the screed until it dries completely.