2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:54
- Screed layer requirements
- Definition of irregularities
- Screed types
- Minimum fill level
- Maximum performance
- Fill methods
- Screed device for parquet
The part of the floor structure on which the flooring is laid is called a screed. Serious requirements are imposed on it, since the surface should be as flat as possible. Indeed, very rarely, even in new buildings, such a foundation is obtained, on which you can immediately carry out laying of any type of material. But, even having chosen a specific option for the screed, the minimum and maximum thickness should be determined so that all characteristics and properties are preserved.
Screed layer requirements
The fill layer performs a certain list of functions and has its own purpose. The result should be a solid foundation that must withstand static and dynamic loads during operation. It is very important to follow the technology to obtain a flat surface. In the future, it will be possible to carry out the flooring of any floor covering, such as tiles, laminate or linoleum.
The arranged screed layer allows to evenly distribute the load over the entire plane in the room.
The load is transferred to the lower layers, where the floor heating system can be located, as well as various communications. This significantly increases the life of all components. If necessary, you can create slopes for specific rooms (bathroom). In this case, the level of filling the floor will be different.
Throughout its thickness, the leveling layer must have an identical density. Cracks, chips, dents or other surface defects should not be allowed to appear. It is for this that the base leveling technology is fully observed, performing all the work sequentially. If you want to get a horizontally flat surface, only a slight slope of up to 0.2% is allowed.
The service life and strength of the entire structure will depend on the specific type of floor screed, as well as the optimal thickness of the fill. Particular attention should be paid to the room where the work will be carried out, the soil at the base. This all affects the level of the fill, the need to use layers of reinforcement or other reinforcing elements.
Definition of irregularities
Until the moment you fill the floor with mortar, you should determine the level and thickness of the layer. It is not realistic to do this with your own vision. The work should use specialized tools. Determine those that have protrusions and potholes on the surface using a bar and a level. The longer the bar, the more accurate the results will be. There are also more modern ways of carrying out this type of work.
The thickness of the screed will depend on the quality of the base and is usually between 30 and 50 mm. But the thick base does not always show excellent qualities during use. Do not fill to raise the floor level. Its main purpose is to create a flat surface for subsequent finishing.
At a significant level of filling, a longer drying time will be required. This will in no way please those who wish to carry out repairs in the apartment as quickly as possible. Subsequent work should not begin until the base has fully gained strength and dries. Determination of the degree of drying for each type of screed is different.
There are three main types of screeds:
Rough floor. The thickness is usually chosen insignificant. Self-leveling mixtures with a level of up to 20 mm are most often used.
In this case, you can do without a reinforcement layer.
- Floor height up to 70 mm. Reinforcement is performed using reinforced concrete and other possible options.
- Screed up to 150 mm thick. This is already a monolith, inside of which it is also impossible to do without the use of reinforcement. Here, floor leveling technology is necessary not only to obtain a flat surface, but also acts as a foundation in the house. These two systems are then connected together.
There are many types of ties that can be used to create a flat surface. Each of them uses different materials and equipment, on which the fill level will depend. In addition, the functions performed differ markedly from the type of base used.
Cement-sand screed. Floor leveling work is most often carried out on a concrete base.
It is enough just to mix all components (sand, cement, water) in appropriate proportions and distribute the resulting solution over the entire area in the room. Cement marking is taken at least M300 in order to match the quality.
- Concrete screed. In the future, you will have to additionally arrange an alignment layer. The foam concrete used has such a property as cracking, which immediately spoils the appearance and loses quality.
- Self-leveling compounds. There can be completely different components in the mixture, each of which is responsible for a certain direction. The layer of such a fill starts from 1-2 mm, depending on the type of mixture used, and reaches 30-40 mm. At the end of the pouring, you can start finishing, including laying any coating.
Semi-dry screed. The mixture contains a small amount of water. Instead of reinforcing elements or even sand, fiber can be used - a modern means that improves the quality of the mortar, which becomes more durable, plastic and evenly distributed over the entire plane.
The mixture can be leveled using a rule or special equipment "Helicopter".
- Use of sheet materials - plywood or other boards. Previously, the filling of dry material is usually carried out, on top of which these elements are attached. The process does not take much time and can be performed even by novice specialists. The thickness of the screed is usually between 30 and 100 mm.
- Dry screed. All operations are completely dry. Water is not used during installation. Suitable for creating a flat surface with significant elevation differences. Perlite, expanded clay, vermiculite are suitable for backfilling. They all differ in cost and quality. If you need to get an answer on how to cheaply level the floor, then it is better to purchase expanded clay. On top of the backfill, sheet material, such as GVL or Knauf-superpol, is also used.
What kind of screed to make in the apartment, everyone should choose, based on the experience of implementation, financial capabilities and the availability of the necessary material for work.
Minimum fill level
To determine the minimum indicators for the thickness of the screed, building codes are provided. Along them, the fill height must be at least 20 mm. This is suitable for cement based leveling. But it is worth noting that the material can influence this indicator. In any case, there is a minimum threshold from which one cannot deviate.
The level of the screed must be just such that it is not only strong, but also durable. The performance indicators will not be met, therefore, there will be no effect from pouring the floor with mortar.
The minimum indicators of the level of filling the screed
All minimum values are usually suitable for a leveling layer. But it is better to think about a thicker screed in the kitchen, bathroom or toilet, where there is a significant load on the base.
With an additional reinforcing layer, the fill level should not fall below 40 mm. In addition, additional requirements will be imposed on the material, such as fine crushed stone, for a thinner layer. It will not be superfluous to add plasticizers to the composition, which will help improve the quality of the solution.
There are parameters for the future screed, which cannot be exceeded in any case. When aligning a curved floor, each individual case will help to get an answer to the limits of the floor fill level. If we take the technological side of the issue, then the layer should not exceed 150-170 mm. If you move away from this, then a lot of time and effort will be spent. In addition, the drying time will noticeably increase. A large layer can be arranged in those rooms where significant loads are possible. These include garages. This also applies to problem ground, as well as the use of a screed as a supporting structure.
It is worth noting that it is not always possible to hide even significant differences in height on the basis of the floor only with a screed. It is enough to knock down the protrusions or patch up the existing potholes. Most often, in this case, even expanded clay or crushed stone is used to reduce the total weight of the fill.
From a financial point of view, there is no excuse for a thick layer when installing a floor heating system. The significant height of the floor pouring above the heating elements will not allow the latter to fully transfer all the heat that will be lost. Heating costs will increase significantly, since you will have to completely warm up the entire thickness of the solution in order to get inside the room. So leveling the floor surface should be done wisely.
There are two main ways you can pour grout:
- Dry mixture. Thus, a semi-dry, dry floor screed is arranged.
- Cement mortar. Here, the result will be a concrete or sand-cement screed. You can level the floors on a budget if you mix the solution yourself.
But what is the best option for leveling the floor?
Concrete pouring is very popular. Here, as with other technologies, there are subtleties and nuances. The main thing is to correctly observe all the proportions of the components. If it is cement, then the grade should be at least M300, for sand - a fraction of no more than 5 mm. The smaller the fraction, the denser the coating will be in the end, and also more evenly distributed over the entire plane in the room. Instead of sand, even screening is better. When choosing a thin layer of filling, plasticizers should be added to the solution. This will allow you to select a level less than 40 mm.
The drying time of the concrete solution is considerable. In this case, it is impossible to turn on the underfloor heating system during the entire period. After pouring, the screed care process is very important to prevent premature drying.
Cases of using dry mixtures are not uncommon. They use little or no water at all. The leveling of the sub-floor in time is minimal, since the screed itself dries very quickly. The final coating is more durable. On the construction market, you can find a huge range of dry mixes that can be used only for a specific type of work, including depending on the thickness of the future screed. Manufacturers on the packaging prescribe all the basic requirements, including the drying time of the pour.
This should be followed to obtain a positive result.
If you take a semi-dry screed, then the process itself takes less time along with drying. Labor costs are also minimal. This is true with a limited period of repairs in the apartment.
The "dry" option provides for the use of floor leveling slabs. They are laid after the backfill of the main components has been completed. All these new floor leveling technologies allow you to get the most durable base, even serving as a finish. The choice of material should be taken seriously, since the entire structure is often performed for a long time.
Screed device for parquet
A screed in a new apartment will be required for a completely different coating option. The use of parquet is not uncommon. This requires knowledge of how to level the floor under parquet quickly and efficiently. Not only a semi-dry screed is very popular, but also a cement grout. Each of these options has its own technology, according to which it is worth consistently performing all actions.
Not everyone knows how to fill a floor. The porosity of the screed must be obtained so that later glue can penetrate well into it. But a significant parameter will lead to a decrease in the strength of the screed. At the same time, constant vibrations of parquet boards will lead to their separation from the base. A good screed requires about 300 kg of cement for every cubic meter of sand. A screed of 50 mm is usually made under the parquet. Drying time will be about 2 months.
When installing communications inside the screed, all this must be fixed. A diagram of the arrangement of pipes, wiring, their exact dimensions is drawn up. It will not be superfluous to take photographs and issue an act. This will allow the master, who is laying the parquet on the surface, not to damage the communications.
So how much does it cost to level the floor in an apartment? This amount will depend on the application of a particular type of mixture or components for mixing the solution, as well as on the level of the floor. It is not always useful to buy expensive materials, but it is better to choose what is popular according to reviews. The price should fully correspond to the quality. The main thing is to correctly choose a specific version of a flat floor device for a certain floor covering and depending on the base itself, its quality and the presence of errors.
Stages of the installation of a concrete floor screed, the implementation of high-quality reinforcement when using a mesh, the rules for pouring the prepared mortar, advice on concrete screed
Features of creating a flat surface for flooring, installation of a screed under a laminate, instructions for leveling the base under a laminate using self-leveling floors
Rules for choosing the thickness for pouring a warm floor, choosing the type of screed, indicators of the material for pouring the solution, factors affecting the height of the floor screed layer
Determination of the minimum and maximum indicators of the semi-dry floor device, the factors on which the future thickness of the floor screed depends, and recommendations for installation. Tips on how to equip a high-quality screed that will delight for many years
Choosing the optimal height for leveling the floor in the apartment. Which is better to choose a cement or self-leveling screed. Recommendations and technologies for leveling floors