2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:54
- Pipe selection
- Laying scheme "snake"
- The device of pipes "snail"
- Combined option
- Edge zones
- Optimal step
- Parameters for calculation
Floor radiators have long been unable to compete for the title of the best, as this position is occupied by warm floors. The latter are able to replace bulky heating systems and at the same time provide a large number of positive qualities. But in this case, when choosing warm water floors, you should understand that you will have to make an effort for installation. Particular attention is paid to the laying of pipes on the floor, the choice of its specific scheme. Of no small importance is the pipeline itself, its correct choice depending on the operating conditions.
Before laying a warm floor under the screed, you should decide on the list of materials that will be necessary for high-quality installation.
You cannot save here, but buy better products from a worthy manufacturer, based on reviews and characteristics. Some manufacturers can give a warranty for their products for more than 30 years. This is what you should pay special attention to. Indeed, in the event of a defect or any malfunctions during the operation of a warm water floor, they will be obliged to pay all compensation, reimburse the price of their goods.
The installation process can be complicated by the presence of pipeline angles, which can vary from 45 to 90 degrees. In addition, pipes for a water-heated floor must meet the following parameters:
- Long service life.
- Robust construction.
- Ability to withstand high temperatures up to 120 degrees.
- Wear resistance.
- Loyal attitude to water and other possible heat carriers (antifreeze).
- High heat transfer rate.
- Low expansion due to heat.
Popular among the whole variety of materials are metal-plastic or polyethylene pipes.
This is due to the rather low cost of products in comparison with other types (stainless steel, copper), as well as excellent performance characteristics. They are able to demonstrate all their properties under any conditions.
An ideal pipe is one that does not undergo cracking, which is very important in the process of installation work on the installation of a warm water floor contour. Moreover, it can be mounted even at an air temperature of +5 degrees. The outer diameter of such a pipe can be from 9 to 22 mm, which is aligned with the inner section. This does not affect the bandwidth in any way.
Laying scheme "snake"
Before laying the water-type underfloor heating pipeline, you should think about the base. It must be properly prepared, since the entire system can be mounted exclusively on a flat surface, which determines the manifestation of all characteristics during operation. Therefore, it is very important to align the underfloor heating screed according to all technology requirements.
There are several options for laying pipes on the floor for subsequent heating. Among them, you can first consider the scheme, called the "snake". But right away it should be said about large heat losses when using the circuit. After all, water is supplied to the pipeline from only one section. Until all the coolant reaches the final element, it cools down very much. Consequently, towards the end of the laid pattern, the subfloor will not be warm. The hot surface is obtained here only at the outlet of the hot coolant.
The disadvantages of this scheme can also be attributed to the difficult installation process. Here it will be necessary to bend the pipe at an angle of up to 180 degrees, which not every material can withstand. In this case, the step of laying the pipeline significantly increases, which can reach up to 20 cm. With this step, large areas with lower base temperatures will also be created. An ordinary pipe cannot transfer heat over such a distance.
A more laborious process is the creation of rings in places where pipes are bent. This allows you to get rid of the bend angle of the material. In this case, it is best to resort to the help of specialists who will perform all the work efficiently and on time. In addition, they will not be able to make mistakes in installing a warm water floor. It will not be superfluous to pre-calculate the device for a water-heated floor in order to find out about all the costs.
To reduce temperature differences throughout the entire section of the warm water floor, a so-called double "snake" is performed. Labor intensity will only increase here, but the base of the floor will be much warmer than the previous option considered.
As for the field of application of such a scheme for laying pipes on the floor, it is more suitable for small rooms in terms of area, when aligning adjacent contour zones, sanitary facilities, when a serious bypass of various devices (toilet, plumbing, etc.) occurs. But even in the latter case, with an area of more than 6-8 m 2, it is best to actually use a spiral system.
The device of pipes "snail"
Otherwise, this arrangement of the pipeline is called spiral. It is selected and performed until the moment the underfloor heating screed device is realized. The popularity of the scheme lies in the efficiency, efficiency of the entire warm water floor system, as well as better energy transfer to the base of the floor in the room.
When the underfloor heating is laid with a snail, the pipes are located, they describe the perimeter of the room. The beginning comes from the very edges, along each wall and goes to its central part. In this case, the radius of pipe laying on the floor is reduced towards the center. After reaching the middle of the room, similar actions are repeated in reverse order to the edge. From this, the main advantage of the chosen scheme immediately follows - an even distribution of heat over the base of the floor in the room. Areas with low temperatures do not form in the floor, since the pipeline alternates the supply of hot (tending) and cold (outgoing) coolant.
The minimum installation step is 10 mm, all other parameters are selected based on personal preferences. But it is worth noting that the smaller the step, the more material will be used for the installation of the warm water floor contour.
"Snail" is not only the most reliable, but also the working scheme itself. The process does not take much time and effort, since the pipes bend very weakly. This process, after becoming familiar with the installation technology, can be performed even by one person on his own without involving specialists and spending money on them.
Using a spiral scheme for laying pipes on the floor, it is possible to insulate individual areas (near external walls or windows). All heat will begin to be transferred to a person when he is just on the floor in the room at the entrance.
Any premises, with any configuration, various and large areas can be equipped with this layout of the warm water floor pipeline. The coils of the "snail" can be done not only throughout the room, but when encircling bulky furniture, which will only harm the circuit during operation. In any case, the capacity of the entire pipeline will be sufficient to heat the base of the floor in any room, as well as air to a height of up to 2.5 meters.
When the device for underfloor heating is determined, the whole "pie", you can try to calculate not a separate scheme for laying the pipeline, but several of their options in one room. In addition to mixing, a duplication of a separate option can occur: the snail will have two turns or several snakes. At the same time, the layout of the premises itself should allow such manipulations to be performed.
All useful energy should mainly be concentrated in the central part of the room. This is where you can think of a snail-style pipe-laying. In the rest of the sections, there will be enough snake to get high-quality heating. The situation is similar with individual areas, such as external walls, when you should think about their insulation.
You can combine not only schemes, but also types of warm floors. The water version can be perfectly combined with the electric one, and be interchangeable. This is especially true in the summer, when central heating is not turned on, electricity will be required. All this is created for comfort and coziness in the living space.
In each individual situation, you should try to calculate the warm floor yourself and make sketches on a sheet of paper. This will help you choose the right option for execution.
Laying underfloor heating in a screed requires special attention in the edge zones. They are otherwise called boundary. They are located near the outer walls that border the street, window and doorways. It is best to choose a smaller pipe spacing here in order to increase the concentration of high temperatures. If, for example, in the remaining zones a laying step of 100-150 mm is taken, then for the edge zone it should be twice as small - 50-75 mm.
When using the "snake" scheme, you should make closer turns directly near these zones in the room. Another option is an angled snake to collect the bulk of the heat just around the border areas.
The most important thing in this situation is to create conditions for the proper temperature level inside the room during the use of a warm water floor. This will be influenced by the chosen scheme of laying the pipeline under the screed, as well as the chosen step.
Before laying the warm floor in the screed, as well as choosing a scheme for installing the pipeline, you need to choose the optimal step of the latter. Step - the distance between adjacent turns. It must correspond to the selected pipe diameter in the appropriate proportion. If the cross-section is very large, then it makes no sense and efficiency to take a small step for laying pipes on the floor. The same applies to the large distance between the turns of small pipes. The main consequences of such errors are thermal voids or overheating of the base.
The preferred indicators for the selection of the step are 150-300 mm. If it increases, therefore, the temperature of the coolant in the system should rise.
Much will depend on what the room is for. If the load of the heating system is up to 50 W per m 2, then the step should be chosen 300 mm. Higher system loads (from 80 W / m 2) require a reduction of the pitch to 150 mm. This solution is most suitable for bathrooms where temperature conditions must be stable.
A step of 200 or 250 mm is suitable for large rooms, which also have a high ceiling.
There is such a concept as a variable pitch, when the pipeline reduces the distance between the turns in individual sections, which may be boundary. We talked about them earlier. The faster step will be approximately 60% of the optimum. The rows should be calculated based on the parameters of the room itself where the work is being carried out.
Parameters for calculation
When it is necessary to lay underfloor heating under the screed, you should calculate the set of materials that may be required. This is influenced by certain factors, which include:
- Room area.
- Thermal insulation used for warm water floor systems.
- The purchased boiler, its capacity, temperature indicators.
- Material used for making walls, ceilings, and thermal insulation.
- The diameter of the pipeline, as well as the selected scheme for laying it on the floor.
This all indicates the length of the entire pipe, which will be necessary for the installation of the underfloor heating system. Of no small importance is the "route" of laying, the places where the step is reduced or increased. The main thing is that, as a result, the heating of the base of the floor is uniform over the entire area.
When the installation of the water-type heated floor contour is completed, all that remains is to align the underfloor heating screed and make any kind of flooring. True, it is worth noting that certain nuances of the device of the warm water floor system itself will depend on the floor covering.
It is not enough to know whether you need a screed for a warm floor. This is simply necessary if the base has various defects in the form of cracks, dents, projections and other irregularities. The piping of the underfloor heating system must be laid exclusively on a flat surface.
When choosing a scheme, you should focus on the area of the room, as well as the presence or absence of edge zones. It is important to know the entire budget, which is emphasized when choosing a pipe material, as well as their quantity. But it is best not to save money and install a high-quality structure that will last for a long period.
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