2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:54
- Materials and equipment
- Styling technologies
- Foundation preparation
- Thermal insulation
- Choosing a piping scheme
- Caution before laying pipes
- Installing the manifold
- Boiler selection
- Screed pouring process
A water-heated floor creates comfort and coziness in every room where it is installed. Device technology includes sequential steps, each of which must go sequentially in order to achieve the desired result. Before starting work, it is better to study all the subtleties and nuances that will have to be faced during installation. But even this all leads to a large number of positive qualities that allow the water floor heating to take a high position in the choice of performers.
Materials and equipment
Initially, you should consider visiting a store to buy all the necessary materials for a warm floor. Each layer of the structure and stage of work requires a different set of products that allow you to create an excellent heating system in the house when laying a warm floor with your own hands.
For a layer of thermal insulation, laminated polystyrene foam mats are more interesting. The thickness can be chosen at your discretion. If they are used in work, then the degree of heat transfer will reach the maximum value. No heat loss will occur to the floors below.
The entire system of a water concrete underfloor heating consists of a collector that is placed in a collector cabinet. The cabinet has small dimensions, depending on the number of circuits, which allows it to be easily mounted into the walls in the room. In addition, they can be outdoor.
The underfloor heating contour is made of specially selected pipes of various materials, to which fasteners are attached (mounting strips, clamps, anchors, etc.).
In the latter case, everything will depend on what exactly the pipes will be fixed to. One of the options is a metal mesh for reinforcement, which can be installed under the pipeline to fix it, as well as on top of it to increase the level of reliability.
Do-it-yourself concrete screed under a warm water floor with your own hands, in addition to ready-made mixtures, can also include additives, plasticizers, which give the prepared mortar the best qualities. The solution can be prepared independently from sand, cement, plasticizers. The most important thing in this case is to strictly observe the proportions of adding each of the components.
Heat supply and heating of the heat carrier is carried out by the installed boiler. It is not uncommon to connect a water-heated floor to a radiator heating that is already in the house.
In addition, you should think in advance about which flooring option to choose for flooring. After all, the process of installing warm floors in a concrete screed will also depend on it. The most preferable ones are laminate, ceramic tiles.
Not so long ago, concrete was the main technology for making a water-heated floor. Here it was enough to pour the solution over the pipeline and wait until it dries completely.
But progress made it possible to use the option of a semi-dry screed, which is so called due to the lack of water during the installation process.
Do-it-yourself "dry" installation of a water-heated floor means placing the system's pipeline on expanded polystyrene mats, or in the grooves of wood slabs. In one case or another, the pipes are firmly fixed on the base, protected from external influences. The wooden method for installing a warm floor has its own types:
- Rack system.
The installation process does not take much time and in each situation is not much different from each other. At the same time, the most important quality of using the "dry" method of the device can be noted - quick installation and the beginning of flooring. As soon as the mats or slabs are laid out, the pipes with the selected laying step are fixed, it remains only to lay a special substrate that will protect the entire structure from possible moisture ingress and make the flooring of the selected floor covering option.
The underfloor heating system piping should only be laid on a flat surface. For this reason, you should first carefully prepare the base, remove all irregularities, height differences, and also repair cracks and potholes.
When a rough screed has been made, if necessary, you will have to wait until it dries completely, and then remove all debris and dust from the surface.
The most important event at the preparatory stage is the design and drawing up of the pipeline layout. Some may think that this is a waste of time. But if you take a sheet of paper and place on a scale all pieces of furniture that will later be located in the room, reflect other points (external walls, installed windows and doors), then you can find problem areas that will require more heating. In addition, the areas where it will be unnecessary to lay the pipeline will be immediately reflected. Indeed, there is no need to lay a heating circuit under a wardrobe or other bulky furniture. Heat will only be wasted without return. In this case, there is a high probability of failure or damage to a separate section of the pipeline due to overheating.
When the base meets all the requirements for the subsequent installation of a water-heated floor, it is possible to lay a layer of thermal insulation. It must be performed without fail if there is a desire to receive all the heat inside the room.
Under the further arrangement of pipes in the room, special mats made of dense foam are laid. Its thickness is usually at least 50 mm. In addition, a special film for thermal insulation or thermal insulation boards of various shapes can be laid. By the way, the latter are intended for the water floor system. Therefore, they have special protrusions ("bosses") where the pipeline can be placed with the selected step. This significantly reduces the time spent on work. In addition, such slabs immediately have a waterproofing coating.
When using foam in the work, it should be covered from above with a polyethylene film as waterproofing. The area of the located layer of thermal insulation must correspond to the area of the entire room where the warm water floor is installed.
A damper tape is attached along the perimeter in the room along the area where the screed will touch the walls. It prevents damage to the fill layer due to thermal expansion, which cannot be avoided with the heating system running.
Choosing a piping scheme
Underfloor heating pipes cannot be located randomly over the entire surface of the base. For high-quality heating of the room, you should choose a suitable scheme for arranging a warm concrete floor, which can be:
"Snake". In the classic version, it has the lowest efficiency of all the options presented.
The greatest heating of the base of the floor will be carried out directly at the outlet of the coolant, since it will be hot there. But as it moves through the pipeline, it will cool down, which will lead to the fact that the area near the entrance for the subsequent heating of the coolant will have a cool surface. To avoid such an error, they learned to arrange a double snake, in which an alternation of a section of warm and cold streams occurs. The installation process is characterized by increased labor intensity to a greater extent due to the fact that you have to create a very large pipe bend angle. But even here the craftsmen found a way out - creating loops at a bend. At the same time, work will increase and skills, but the result will be worth it.
"Snail". Possesses high usefulness.
From the source, the pipe is directed along the perimeter of the room and coiled up in a spiral to the center, after which it returns back. This allows to achieve an alternation of cold and hot flows, which leads to an even distribution of heat over the sub floor. If it is necessary to allocate a separate section for better heating, the pipe laying step can be reduced to the desired size.
- Combined. Combines the above options in one room. In addition, several snakes or snails can be arranged in the room, creating separate contours. All this is necessary so that the air warms up as much as possible, keeping energy consumption at a minimum.
Be sure to calculate the power of the warm floor with an online calculator.
|Serving temperature, o C.|
|Return temperature, o C.|
|Pipe pitch, m||0.050.10.150.184.108.40.206|
|Trumpet||Pex-Al-Pex 16x2 (Metal-plastic) Pex-Al-Pex 16x2.25 (Metal-plastic) Pex-Al-Pex 20x2 (Metal-plastic) Pex-Al-Pex 20x2.25 (Metal-plastic) Pex 14x2 (Cross-linked polyethylene) Pex 16x2 (Cross-linked polyethylene) Pex 16x2.2 (Cross-linked polyethylene) Pex 18x2 (Cross-linked polyethylene) Pex 18x2.5 (Cross-linked polyethylene) Pex 20x2 (Cross-linked polyethylene) PP-R 20x3.4 (Polypropylene) PP-R 25x4.2 (Polypropylene) Cu 10x1 (Copper) Cu 12x1 (Copper) Cu 15x1 (Copper) Cu 18x1 (Copper) Cu 22x1 (Copper)|
|Flooring||TilesLaminate on a substrateParquet on plywood|
|Screed thickness above the pipe, see|
|Specific thermal power, W / m 2|
|Floor surface temperature (average), o C|
|Specific heat carrier consumption, (l / h) / m 2|
Calculators from wpcalc.com
Caution before laying pipes
Until the moment you distribute the pipes along the base in the room for the heating system, you should pay attention to some of the subtleties that allow you to create a truly effective structure.
To level the base for pipes, self-leveling mixtures can be used, which are characterized by fast drying and creating the most even surface. When using metal-plastic pipes in work, the most optimal section will be considered 20 mm. With a "double snake" device, the loop should be created by a single pipe. Otherwise, there is a high probability of leakage in the bend section.
The start-up of the warm water floor system can only be carried out after the concrete pour has completely dried. Even after starting work, the pressure and temperature in the circuit should be gradually applied. Approximately on the third day, the system will have a working form.
Installing the manifold
To place the collector in the room, the collector cabinet is pre-fixed. When this is all ready, a cold and hot water supply pipe is launched into the cabinet, which is connected to the corresponding sections of the collector.
This equipment should be purchased based on how many circuits will be used in the room.
The possibility of repair work on the warm water floor system cannot be ruled out. Nobody is immune from this. In this case, you should think about installing a shut-off valve between the collector and the water supply pipes, which allows you to switch the supply of the coolant to the system.
In order not to bother about everything necessary for the collection group, it is best to find a ready-made option on the construction market, which will include everything necessary for its full functioning. Each scheme for laying a water floor with your hands requires a separate connection on the manifold. This should be taken into account, for which the preliminary design of the system is carried out.
There may be cases where the underfloor heating system is connected to central heating. There is no need to additionally install a booster pump. An autonomous system will require not only this pump, but also a pumping pump.
The purchase of a boiler must be matched to its capacity. Even at peak times, it must be able to cope with any load during water heating. But here, too, his work should be associated with maximum power, a certain margin should always remain. There is a certain formula by which the power of the heating boiler is selected:
Boiler power = Underfloor heating power + 20%
In this case, there will be no problems with the operation of the entire system. There are a large number of boiler options. All of them can run on gas fuel, electricity or other. The system includes a pump for full water circulation. If he is chosen to work in a one-, two-story building, then it will be enough (approximately 120-150 m 2). Otherwise, you will have to purchase additional equipment. It is not difficult to correctly calculate the boiler power with an online calculator.
At the inlet and outlet of the boiler, shut-off valves must be installed, which are necessary to turn off the system during repair work or maintenance, when there is no need to drain the water.
A circulation pump is suitable for a floor heating system. They direct the coolant through the pipeline at a set speed. This does not create any overpressure. But it is best to choose three-speed pumps in boilers, since you will have to change the speed of the coolant depending on the season.
When buying a boiler, you should pay attention to its performance and pressure. The first is calculated by the formula:
Q = 0.86 * Pн / (tp.-tob.)
Pн - heating circuit power.
The head is calculated:
H = (P * L + K) / (1000)
P is the hydraulic resistance of each m.p. pipes
L is the length of the longest contour.
K - power reserve factor.
In order for the coolant to be evenly distributed throughout the entire water underfloor heating system in the presence of several collector cabinets, the main route must have a splitter. After it, narrowing adapters are installed. This is exactly what the installation of water-heated floors in the screed consists in.
Screed pouring process
When installing all components of the underfloor heating and their final connection, test measures should be carried out. This stage will allow you to identify possible errors that could get out during operation. Then the consequences would be more significant. If there are no problems, then you can approach filling the floor heating system with concrete.
The process does not take much time with a competent approach. A solution is mixed from the existing components, to which a plasticizer is also added. The finished mixture is evenly distributed over the entire surface with the selected thickness. To do this, it is better to first arrange beacons on the base in the form of a profile located on mortar slides so that the installation of warm water floors in a concrete screed is carried out with the correct thickness. Other special additives specially designed for underfloor heating can also be used. They will only improve the quality of the fill. In each specific situation, for pouring a water-heated floor, the technology must be followed.
Some technicians can produce concrete screed with the working system turned on. According to them, the drying process takes less time. But it is better not to experiment in such a matter, since a crack in the screed of a water-heated floor may appear on the surface. Here you will have to carry out repair work, causing unnecessary waste of money and time.
When the screed is completely dry, which usually happens within 4 weeks, you can start laying the flooring. It will not be superfluous to even measure the humidity level, which should correspond to 2-4 percent.
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