2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 22:24
- Types of ventilation
- What is needed for installation?
- Why do you need ventilation in the bathroom?
- Causes of malfunction of the ventilation system
- Forced ventilation system for bathroom
- Selection of the type of motor for ventilation
- Selecting the type of ventilation control
A properly designed ventilation system in a residential area not only contributes to a comfortable stay in the premises, but also reduces the likelihood of illness for the residents themselves. Indeed, in the old stagnant air, especially in a cramped room, a huge amount of harmful bacteria accumulates, which can become pathogens not only of fungal formations on the walls and ceiling. But they can also cause serious diseases for humans. Therefore, it is necessary to take seriously and responsibly the issue of designing and installing a ventilation system.
Types of ventilation
The type and type of ventilation system depends on the purpose of the room, which can be a bathroom, kitchen, living room, etc. With high-quality construction, it is necessary to design central ventilation and to all rooms, but modern apartment building is limited to ventilating the toilet, bathroom and kitchen. In multi-storey buildings, as a rule, there is a central well, into which all air ducts converge. Recently, separate wells for kitchens and bathrooms are more often designed, which are connected on the technical floor.
What is needed for installation?
Ventilation in apartment buildings consists in the installation of dampers, distributors, air dampers, fans with grilles, because ducts are already available. But sometimes it requires expanding it, or moving it a couple of centimeters, then you will need the appropriate tools for working with concrete. For the installation of ready-made systems, the following tools are required:
- set of screwdrivers;
- punch or drill;
- elements for ventilation systems;
- dowels and other hardware.
Why do you need ventilation in the bathroom?
As mentioned earlier, ventilation is a comprehensive tool for both protection and comfort. She has the following positive qualities:
- Provides the most favorable indoor climate. This is achieved through the use of active systems using variable speed motors or controlled air dampers. This quality has two parts: temperature and humidity. Only by maintaining these two parameters in the required ranges can you achieve maximum comfort and quality of life.
- The ventilation system is an excellent tool for complex ventilation of the room, if necessary.
A bathroom, especially a combined one, is exactly a place where very often there is high humidity and an unpleasant odor at the same time. And yet there are no windows in these rooms for obvious reasons. To get rid of unfavorable factors, a high-quality and fast-acting ventilation system is needed in addition to the natural one, called forced with automatic or manual control. Another reason for using forced ventilation is the weather factor, which is constantly changing, then a strong wind blows and it rains, or even calmly and warms the hot summer sun.
A properly designed and installed system will ensure the prompt removal of all unpleasant odors and steam even before leaving the room. Thus, maintaining the same climate and atmosphere in other rooms of the apartment. Constant high humidity contributes to the generation of condensation, which settles not only on glass and mirrors, but also on all other surfaces, both horizontal and vertical. Which in turn, even after a short period of time, will lead to infection of the walls with fungus, the formation of mold on the ceiling and in the corners, and corrosion of metal objects and fittings in plumbing. And this is fraught with subsequent costs for the next repair. Therefore, we can note another positive quality of the ventilation system in rooms with high humidity - this is economic.
Causes of malfunction of the ventilation system
How to check ventilation in the bathroom? If you feel that there is an air blockage in the room, it has become difficult to breathe, then there is a possibility of a malfunction of the natural ventilation system. It is necessary to check its functioning visually, this will require a source of fire and patience. It is necessary to carry the fire to an open ventilation duct and observe its behavior. With proper ventilation, the flame tilts at an angle of 45 0… If this is not observed, then the natural system is blocked. As a result, there is a smell from the ventilation in the bathroom. This is most likely due to clogging of the channel by foreign objects, less often - by birds that have got into it. To find out and eliminate the cause of the blockage, you must contact the utilities, which will obligatorily carry out the necessary technical work free of charge.
After checking the natural one, you can proceed to the installation of the forced ventilation system
Forced ventilation system for bathroom
For the design of any ventilation system, standardized data are used, which depend on the area and functionality of the room. According to the tabular data, the exchange of air in the bathroom should be carried out with a capacity of at least 25 m 3 per hour; in the case of a combined unit, this figure should be at least 50 m 3. Performance depends on the overall dimensions and design of the building ventilation shafts
Before proceeding with the installation of the ventilation system, you should understand the concepts:
Natural ventilation is the exchange of air masses from open doors and windows to the duct (this should be taken into account when checking the exhaust capacity);
Artificial or forced - active systems (fans, dampers) are used for air circulation.
In turn, forced can also be of several types:
Supply air - for the exchange of air masses, air is taken from the street through ventilation ducts;
Exhaust - air is transported from the room to the canal (standard system in apartment buildings);
Mixed - combined use of both directions of travel.
In modern construction in multi-storey buildings, joint ventilation is designed between the bathroom and the toilet, that is, there is no direct exit to the ventilation duct, and there is an opening in the adjacent wall with the toilet. Through it, air circulates, and in the case of a bath, steam moves. In this regard, two systems can be distinguished:
Duct - additional air ducts are used that connect the bathroom with the central duct;
Channelless - the steam goes out to the bathroom, and from it to the canal.
Selection of the type of motor for ventilation
Do you need ventilation in the bathroom? The need to install an additional system arises in cases with lower previously illuminated indicators or in case of need for operational control of the microclimate. In any case, the improvement of the system, additional installation of ventilation in the bathroom only contributes to an increase in the quality of life.
The forced ventilation system in the bathroom consists of only a few components and the professionalism of an electrician. But before starting work, you must choose the right fan. It must have a high electrical safety rating. This is due to the fact that it is in the bathroom that there is always high humidity, and water is an excellent conductor for electricity.
There are also several types of fan mounting:
radial - mounted directly in front of the channel entrance;
channel - installed in the channel itself.
According to their design features, fans are divided into the following types:
Centrifugal - provides maximum flow, but creates the most noise;
Diametrical - less noisy, but also less productive due to the drum design of the working body;
Axial - is widely used in channelless systems, because the air is captured by the blades and flows along the axis;
Universal - a combination of centrifugal and axial, which allowed to obtain smaller overall dimensions, high performance and low noise figure.
Proper bathroom ventilation should start with preliminary calculations. They are based on the determination of the volume of the room and the fan performance. For example, for a room with a volume of 9 m 3 or more, a fan with a capacity of 72 m 3 is required for a family of 4 people. Further, according to the passport data, an engine is selected in the range from 72 to 100 m 3 per hour.
Selecting the type of ventilation control
The supply ventilation in the bathroom can be equipped with various fan control systems:
Manual - a separate switch is installed on the engine;
Synchronized - the motor circuit is connected to the light switch;
Automatic on time and at the same time synchronized - the fan power circuit is connected to the light switch, but turns off automatically by a timer;
Automatic - controlled by humidity sensors.