2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:54
- Electric floor heating device
- How to choose an electric underfloor heating. Types of cables
- Resistive cable
- Self-regulating cables
- Electric floor heating calculation rules
- Installation technology
- A selection of videos on the selection and installation of an electric underfloor heating
Nowadays, electricity is increasingly being used to install a warm floor. In this case, a special electrical cable is used, with the help of which the floor is heated. The site for self-repair of an apartment, has prepared a good instruction on the device, selection and installation of floor heating with your own hands with photo materials. So let's get started.
Electric floor heating device
The option of underfloor heating, which uses an electric cable, as opposed to a water heating system, is available both to owners of private houses and residents of urban high-rise buildings. When installing electric floor heating, no
installation of pipes and their connection to the heat supply system is required, all work consists in laying a thin electrical cable and connecting it to the electrical network.
The system of such a floor is much easier to manage, since there are a lot of various electronic devices that will take care that the temperature is at a given level all the time. Such warm floors can be used in a variety of premises, including country houses, summer cottages. For example, using such a system, you can maintain the required temperature in a small country house or set the on timer so that by the time you leave the garage, the room is warmed up to start the engine confidently.
In terms of its structure, an electric underfloor heating is in many ways similar to a heating system in which water serves as a heat carrier. The installation methods also practically do not differ from the installation of a water heated floor, the only difference is that in this case the heating element is a cable.
How to choose an electric underfloor heating. Types of cables
According to the principle of operation, heating cables are divided into two types:
The entire system of electric underfloor heating consists of power wires that are laid to connect the system (they are mainly laid in the wall), and the cables themselves, with the help of which the floor is heated. To reduce resistance, the connection of power and heating cables is made using special couplings, as shown in the photo below.
The main heating element of a resistive cable is a core with increased resistance, passing through which electric current is converted into thermal energy. In order to avoid electric shock to people, the heating core is covered with a layer of insulation, on top of which a metal braid is applied. This braid serves as an earth ground and is a shielding protection against electromagnetic fields that arise as a result of operation. All these layers are covered with outer insulation. Resistive cables can have one or two conductors.
Single core cable
A system with a single-core cable is the simplest option for an electric underfloor heating. Its installation consists in laying the cable over the floor area, for which it is necessary to provide for the connection of both ends of the cable to the power supply system, that is, the cable is located on the floor in the form of a loop. Such a system, along with its simplicity, has one significant drawback, as a result of the flow of electric current through the cable conductor, an electromagnetic field is formed. The braiding smooths out this physical phenomenon, but the result is not always satisfactory.
The two-core cable also has a conductive core, which is located between the two heating wires. Given that the electric current flows in different directions, the electromagnetic fields generated in different wires cancel each other out. When installing resistive cables, they should be carefully sealed in a screed so that overheating does not occur and the cable does not break down.
Such cables are free from the disadvantages that are in resistive cables, since here the polymer matrix serves as a heating element. In case of overheating of one area, the current decreases in it, which affects the generation of heat. In this section, the temperature drops, while the rest of the system is operating normally. Self-regulating cables have several times the cost of conventional heating cables, but guarantee a long service life.
Film infrared heat-insulated floor is a great option when it is not possible to make a screed; it can be laid under a laminate or carpet. The advantages are obvious, learn in detail about the film field.
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Electric floor heating calculation rules
When buying a cable, you must first determine the power of the entire heating system, per 1m 2. Experts advise adhering to the following selection parameters:
- sleeping room - 100-150 W / m 2;
- entrance hall, corridor, kitchen - 150 W / m 2;
- toilet, bathroom - 180 W / m 2;
- balcony, loggia - 200 W / m 2.
Using this data, you can easily determine the power density of the underfloor heating system. When calculating, you should exclude the area that is occupied by constantly standing objects (cabinets, sofas, bathtub, refrigerator, etc.). All these objects interfere with normal air circulation, and this will cause unnecessary power consumption, and in these places, cables may overheat and fail.
It should also be borne in mind that the wiring in residential premises is designed for a maximum of 2 - 4 kW, therefore, when calculating the heating power, this moment must be taken into account. As an option, display it separately.
The calculation of the cable power is calculated according to the following diagram. If we take, for example, a bedroom area of 5 m 2, while the power should be 100 W / m 2. We get 100x5 = 500 watts. In the store, you need to choose a cable that has the appropriate power. The closest thing, let's say, will be a cable with a length of 24 m, having a power of 550W. Now you need to calculate the cable laying step - 5x100 / 24 = 21 cm (S heating x100 / cable length) Our online calculator for calculating the power of an electric underfloor heating will help in this.
Before installing an electric underfloor heating, you need to determine the place where the thermostat is to be installed. To do this, you need to gouge a hole in the wall into which the junction box will be installed. This is usually done at a height of 50 - 100 cm. After this procedure, it is necessary to supply power and ground to the box installation site. From the installation site, we make a groove in the wall along which the power wires will go to the connection with the heating cable.
After all these works, they start laying the cable, having previously made a layer of thermal insulation about 2 cm thick. The cable is laid on a leveled surface. When installing the cable, make sure that the rows of cables do not touch each other. The cable is laid according to the diagram obtained in the calculation. You can lay both in parallel lines and in a spiral, because there is not much difference in this. Laying is carried out on a mounting tape, which is laid with a step of about 50 cm. Power wires should be laid to the thermostat, the connecting sleeve must be in the concrete screed. After laying the heating cable, a temperature sensor is installed, it must be installed in a plastic tube. Before the final filling of the floor, check the quality of the cable with a tester,to avoid re-disassembly of the tie in the event of a factory defect in the cable.
To control the temperature, preference should be given to programmable thermostats, which will allow heating to be used while the owners are present in the room.
Now that everything is in place, you can start pouring the screed. If the floor surface is hard, the screed layer should be more than 3 cm thick, and if you are installing an insulating layer, then more than 5 cm.
You can start connecting the heating cable when the screed has hardened. There are screw terminals on the rear side of the thermostat, to which you need to connect the sensor wires that determine the floor temperature, as well as the power wires from the heating cable and the electrical wiring that powers the entire system. It is important to connect correctly to the electrical panel. If you are not sure that you can properly connect an electric underfloor heating, then we advise you to watch a video of expert advice.
Shade floor mounting serkets
Errors in installing a warm floor
Installation under tiles
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The installation of an electric underfloor heating ends here. For the analysis and the final choice of the system, see how to make a water-heated floor with your own hands, the installation technology is slightly different. You may want to lay exactly the water floor to lay. If you have any questions, feel free to ask them in the comments.
A selection of videos on the selection and installation of an electric underfloor heating
Do-it-yourself Water-heated Floor, Technology And Installation Of A Water-heated Floor With Photo Video
Features do-it-yourself installation of a water-heated floor. How to make a water floor yourself. Device and technology of correct styling with photo instructions and recommendations
Installation of plastic doors, tips and videos. Description of the sequence of works during the installation of pvc doors. Consider how to fix the box, how to seal the opening
A good solution for arranging the floor is to install a film floor heating yourself, but it is worth knowing how to connect correctly and make installation without errors
Do-it-yourself Dry Floor Screed Video. GVL Technology Of Dry Floor Screed, Installation And Device With Photo
Floor screed is a must, an essential condition for the preparation of flat floors
How to lay a cable warm floor in an apartment with your own hands. Video instruction on the use of electric floor heating. Tips for mounting and positioning the substrate