2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:54
- Types of screeds
- Screed purpose
- Advantages and disadvantages of cement screed
- Foundation preparation
- Markup rules
- Exposing lighthouses
- Using dry mixes
- Filling the screed
Every surface needs to be level, especially when it comes to flooring and flooring. In this case, it is very important to choose a screed option, perform the installation correctly and wait until it dries completely. When the screed technology is followed, the leveling of the floor is obtained at the maximum level of reliability. At the same time, the floor screed allows you to hide all existing irregularities in the base, as well as engineering communications. Subsequently, after leveling the floor, you can finish or lay any kind of flooring.
Types of screeds
When carrying out repairs, you should know how to level the floor correctly and in compliance with all technologies. There are many classifications of screeds for leveling the base. Each of them contributes to the performance of certain functions and has a different purpose. Depending on how the mortar is connected to the foundation slab, it is divided into:
Bound. The solution is poured directly onto the base. Bonding occurs due to the presence of adhesion. Heat and waterproofing are not satisfied. It is suitable when there is no way to raise the floor level (the doors may not open, the distance to the ceiling is significantly reduced). In addition, the connected screed is arranged when creating a light "pie", the base itself is almost perfectly flat, and the very area of the room where the installation is carried out has a significant area. As for specific premises, the connected screed will perfectly fit into those where there is a large amount of furniture, including massive ones, there are partitions, storage rooms. The screed turns out to be quite massive - up to 150 kg per square meter. There are some nuances for this type of floor leveling regarding lighthouses. They should be suspended above the base (on self-tapping screws or laid out sections of the solution).
Floating. It got its name due to the presence of a pillow, which includes many layers: sound, heat, waterproofing. It is on them that the screed is located. Excellent for flooring such as linoleum, laminate, parquet boards. But it should be noted that the screed will no longer be an option for parquet. This leveling option is indispensable for rooms with warm floors, a high probability of cracking, for quick filling of the solution. It can even be considered as a cheap way to level the floor.
On a separating layer. A layer of heat and waterproofing is arranged as a separating layer during leveling. She still has no contact with the walls. Various materials can be used for such layers. In this case, waterproofing is intended to protect against moisture. Suitable for bathrooms, basements, attics, ground floor floors.
In any case, when choosing a screed option for high-quality leveling of the base, you should purchase the necessary material and tools. The quality of mixing the solution will subsequently affect the reliability of the entire "pie".
In addition to the main function of leveling the base, the floor screed is able to give it evenness, height, and a certain slope. The slope can be zero, but under certain circumstances it is simply irreplaceable (for installing a drain hole in the bathroom, dressing room and other rooms). Additionally, the screed also has thermal insulation qualities for the room in which it is installed. In each case, it will not be difficult to level the floor with your own hands. The main thing is to strictly follow the technology and do everything consistently.
Each screed option has its own purpose and is suitable for specific conditions for leveling the base.
Advantages and disadvantages of cement screed
Most often, when leveling the floor, a cement screed is used as a more optimal way to arrange the floor for further finishing. After it, you can easily lay any kind of flooring (carpet, tiles, laminate, linoleum, etc.). In addition, if you wish, you can arrange underfloor heating. With all this, the distance from floor to ceiling will practically not change due to a thin layer of screed. After hardening, the surface becomes firm and hard. It is able to withstand any external mechanical stress, large and massive objects.
While cement screed is a cheap way to level the floor, it has some minor disadvantages:
- Making accurate measurements.
- Long period of solution hardening, up to 30 days.
- During operation, a large amount of dirt and dust is emitted.
But until the moment you level the floor with your own hands, you should complete all the steps to prepare the surface for pouring the solution. The surface to be leveled is brought to the ideal so that the quality is maximized.
If there is an old screed or other covering, it must be removed. An exception is a surface that is firmly attached to the base. Existing paint, oil stains are removed, sanded. To prevent further leakage of the prepared solution, all cracks and potholes are carefully sealed.
For this, a special tool and a set of certain knowledge can even be used.
Builders can save money on punching holes for electrical wiring. In this case, the concrete slab or other base suffers greatly. In addition to this, all the noise from the downstream apartments, as well as the inconvenience, comes from it. Such holes are repaired on their own.
After carrying out the above work, the surface should be cleaned of debris, dust and dirt. A construction vacuum cleaner will come to the rescue, capable of removing even a trifle. Subsequently, this can contribute to poor-quality solidification of the solution, as well as the manifestation of defects in the form of delamination, cracks, etc.
When the preparatory measures have been taken and the surface is completely free of debris, you can begin to make markings throughout the room in order to level the floor level qualitatively. Most often, the construction hydraulic level is used in work. There are more modern means - a laser level, but its cost is high and will not pay off when carrying out repairs in the same room.
The hydraulic level is presented in the form of a pair of flasks with water, which are interconnected by a hose of a certain length. In vertical containers, the liquid will be located at the same level under any circumstances. Therefore, by placing the flasks above or below, the required level of the future screed is set.
The work is done by two people. After installing the first flask in the corner of the room, the first mark is made. She will set the future level. The second flask is moved by another person along the indicated wall a certain distance to place it. After setting the same level of liquid in the flasks, a similar mark is made. These marks are subsequently connected to each other. It should be noted that the more data points along the perimeter of the room, the more likely it is for accurate calculations.
The strength of the base of the future floor will depend on the quality of the screed. At the same time, it should not be less than 3 cm in thickness. Otherwise, with significant loads, the screed will begin to crack and show defects.
When the first marks have been made, they will serve as a reference for determining the zero level, which also includes the thickness of the floor screed to level the base.
Do-it-yourself floor leveling cannot do without a primer. The entire surface where the screed is being installed must be smeared with a roller. This will increase the level of adhesion of the mortar to the floor surface. At the same time, this procedure also performs the function of waterproofing.
It is impossible to skip the priming procedure of the base for pouring the mortar, as over time the screed will begin to crack. This will be especially evident when the poured mortar will have an insignificant layer thickness.
Particular attention is paid to the kitchen or bathroom.
Here, specialized primers are used in the work, which are both waterproofing and hydrophobic. During operation, they will be able to pass moisture to the screed, and vice versa, from the screed. This manifests itself in case of accidental flooding, when the water will remain inside the room, and will not go to the neighbors below.
When visiting a store to buy a primer, you should pay attention to those that are marked "for concrete". There is another name for them - "primer-primers".
In order for the floor leveling to be of high quality, and less effort was expended when pouring, a system of beacons should be arranged. Various materials can be used for them. The most popular are special metal profiles. If you pay attention to their cross section, then it will resemble the letter "T".
Attachment to the base is parallel to each other at a given distance. Their upper part should coincide with the marks on the wall, which were exposed during the drawing of the markup. Several points should be selected at which the profile will be attached to the base. A solution or gypsum base will help in this. The distance between the given points is usually a meter and a half.
As for the lighthouses themselves, they should be located depending on what kind of tool is used for leveling. It's about its length. When it is one and a half meters, the distance between the profiles is usually chosen in the region of 1.2-1.3 meters. That is, the entire distance must be captured in order to evenly distribute the mortar during pouring. The main thing is that it is convenient to use the same rule when installing a screed to level the floor.
Specialists can carry out work on their own without using the exposed beacons. But this is a matter of experience. They can fill themselves. If there is no confidence in the strength, then it is better not to take risks and not experiment. Otherwise, you will have to deal with defects and errors of work. This sometimes causes significant financial costs.
Using dry mixes
When all of the above types of work are completed, you can start mixing the solution. In this case, it is best to use ready-made dry building mixtures, where there are all the components for full-fledged filling. In addition, they usually use a non-shrinking type of cement. It will be enough to add the required amount of water and mix the solution until a homogeneous consistency.
Who does not know how to level the floor correctly using a high-quality mortar, then you should not try to collect cement, sand and the necessary additives into one whole. All this is ready-made. In addition, they have a certain set of advantages, including a short time to complete drying. In addition, the surface turns out to be durable, after a few days you can easily move along it and carry out finishing work indoors.
There are a large number of mixtures, and they can all be designed to perform a specific task. The choice will depend on the contractor for leveling the base. It will not be superfluous to consult on this matter with professionals who can advise the best option.
Filling the screed
The final stage of leveling the floor with your own hands is pouring the finished solution over the area of the room. The mixture is usually poured in the far corner of the room opposite the entrance. After that, the solution is leveling along the exposed beacons. No special knowledge in this direction is needed.
Usually the screed is poured along the side sections along the walls, and then the section with beacons in front of the entrance. After finishing the work, give the screed time to set. At the same time, one must not forget to monitor it so that it dries evenly over the entire area. You can easily choose the cheapest way to level the floor. With minimal financial costs and labor costs, you can get the ideal option.
After completing the work, you can think about buying a floor covering that fits the interior of the entire room. The main thing in the installation process is to observe the sequence of work, which includes the technology itself.
Requirements for the preparation of the base for pouring the floor with a leveler, the sequence of work on the installation of a flat and smooth floor, final leveling
Alignment technology with adhesive for the base tile for subsequent flooring, options for the device of individual types of surface for tiles
The use of plywood sheets to remove defects in the subfloor, methods of leveling the concrete surface, recommendations for installation, advantages and disadvantages
Schemes used for leveling the floor with plywood, rules for laying plywood without logs using glue, technology for attaching plywood to a prepared wooden base
The choice of a method for leveling the subfloor, bringing the plank surface to a level state, leveling with plywood under the laminate, using self-leveling mixtures