2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:54
- Screed composition
- Surface preparation
- Floor level measurements
- Exposing lighthouses
- Screed calculation
- Mixing the solution
- Screed installation
To obtain an excellent floor, you should perform a screed well. It is with her that all rough work begins, not only during major repairs, but also in a new building. It acts as the top of the concrete base and serves for all types of flooring. It is for this reason that every effort should be made to get the desired result.
The installed cement floor screed has its own functions. It is very important to know what the floor screed is for:
- Creation of a flat surface of the floor, in the event that it does not have horizontality or there are some defects.
- The device is a two-layer surface for the underfloor heating system. The first layer is mounted after the insulation layer, and the second - after laying the heating wire.
- Leveling the floor in one level in different rooms. Such problems begin to appear after poor-quality concrete pouring, or improper leveling. If you move away from this point, then in the future it will be impossible to carry out high-quality laying of the floor covering. Otherwise, so-called "steps" can form.
- The floor must always withstand certain loads, have a sufficient level of strength. This is where the screed comes to the rescue.
But these are only the minimum and most basic functions that a floor screed in an apartment can perform. Everything else will depend on the specific situation of its installation.
Before starting work, you should dwell on the use of the composition for performing the floor screed. This is if we take into account the ready-made mixtures. There is nothing complicated here. The most basic components are cement and sand in certain proportions. They allow you to get the result that everyone aspires to. It is enough to add a certain amount of water to it, and a strong surface is obtained after drying.
Such components contained in the mixture do not take away large finances, their cost is insignificant. It is for this reason that they are so popular and in demand.
On the market, you can find various types of mixtures that are capable of performing the declared functions or imparting quality to the finished solution. They are completely ready to use as intended. The solution is obtained without extra effort.
The main purpose of the floor screed is to create a flat surface. At the same time, it is very important to carry out preparatory measures at the proper level. The base must be free of any debris, dust layer. A construction vacuum cleaner will be a great helper here. Existing defects ("ridges", depressions, cracks) must be eliminated by knocking or sealing them.
The new screed will have better adhesion to the surface if the latter is treated with a layer of primer. In some cases, there may even be several layers. If the room is damp and has a high level of humidity, then it will not be superfluous to arrange a layer of waterproofing. In its capacity, roofing material or other insulating material will act. A thick mastic that can be applied with a brush or roller is very effective.
Floor level measurements
The surface itself must be determined for distortions. A laser level or other modern devices are suitable for this. The zero mark is set, and the highest point at the base is determined. This will allow you to establish all possible costs and the amount of solution for work. As for the zero level, it should be broken through in each room of the apartment. It should be in the form of marks for all rooms, and is set not along the floor level, but along the horizon. If you connect them with one line, you get a zero level. It can be used to check the horizontalness of all other measurements.
If an expanded clay layer is laid under the screed, then it is necessary to find possible drops. When performing work efficiently and in compliance with technology, the level of screed installation will be as accurate as possible.
To improve the quality and speed of screed installation, beacons should be installed throughout the room. As one of the options, you can consider attaching the beacon profiles to alabaster. The first of the lighthouses should be located at one of the selected walls, and the second - opposite this wall. Moreover, they must be located strictly according to the level. When a cement-sand floor screed is performed, the number of beacons will be arbitrary.
The more there are, the higher the accuracy. But this option is effective for novice builders.
The main thing is that the height of the lighthouse should not be more than the level of the future floor. The step of fixing the elements can vary from 40 to 80 cm. On the lighthouses, some pull a net of threads to check their horizontality. This creates certain conveniences when leveling the mortar over the area of the room.
It is possible to increase the strength of the screed by exposing reinforcing elements. This is done before installing the mortar itself. For filling the mesh, a liquid solution is better suited, capable of closing all voids and gaps. It is not necessary to tighten it strongly, but rather evenly distribute it over the plane. The sandy floor screed will become more durable and reliable, protected from external influences.
If the installation of a cement screed floor is carried out on a concrete base, the layer thickness is usually at least 70 mm. A larger layer will be obtained when mounting the surface on tamped soil - about 120 mm. Some question whether a floor screed is needed with such high material costs. A smaller thickness will begin to crack over time, since it will not fully possess the qualities that are necessary. Several can be reduced, but not less than 50 mm.
Thick screeds are best done with expanded clay. This applies to surfaces with significant height differences up to 200 mm. If this material is mixed with a solution, then we get expanded clay concrete. In addition, he will receive such excellent quality as a high level of sound insulation.
When choosing ready-made mixtures, preference should be given to trusted companies. It is not uncommon for poor quality materials to come across. In such a situation, people often independently mix the solution, taking into account the requirements for proportions. In order to carry out a high-quality do-it-yourself floor screed, the instruction must be followed in any case.
Mixing the solution
When preparing the solution on your own, you should pay attention to the recommendations from specialists. A high-quality mortar is obtained when the proportion of sand and cement is 3 to 1. If you make the proportions 4 to 1, then such surfaces are more suitable for the subsequent laying of tiles.
Laminate or linoleum requires a screed using high grade mortar grade. In this situation, it is very difficult to find a quality cement for the job. The device of a cement-sand floor screed implies the use of the M400 brand. It finds more application in the construction industry. If you pay attention to the M500 brand, then you should approach it with some caution, since it is not uncommon for various components to be added to the composition.
The cement and sand used for the floor screed are poured into the selected container. Then they are stirred until a homogeneous mass is obtained and filled with an amount of water. As a result, the solution should become without lumps, of the same color, without manifestations of a lump of cement or sand. If this is not achieved, the quality of the floor screed will be poor.
The floor screed with a cement-sand mortar begins to be performed from the far corner from the entrance to the room. It is enough to lay it out at a height of about half a meter, and then distribute it in the direction of the entrance using the rule. There are no pitfalls here. Simplicity of installation together with low cost attracts a large number of performers. In addition, experts have learned how to carry out installation without installing beacons.
When installing the screed, you should pay attention to the fact that each gap is filled with mortar. If such will appear, then they can be filled with a spatula.
To move the solution over the area of the room, a rule is used that moves along the installed beacons. From this it is assumed that the distance between adjacent beacons should not be greater than the length of the rule.
The last step is to fill those strips with a solution that are located opposite the entrance. That is, first everything is done from the side walls and towards the center.
After the solution begins to harden, all formed bumps should be knocked down with a spatula. To obtain surface uniformity and slight roughness, a wooden float is used. The entire surface is rubbed with it. But for grouting, the solution should be made correctly so that the do-it-yourself floor screed device is at a decent level.
Using sifted sand, mix it with cement in equal proportions. The required amount of water is then added. It will not be superfluous to wet the surface when working from a spray gun for better adhesion.
The rule and level at the final stage of the floor screed in the room will help determine irregularities on the surface, smooth them out and eliminate them. The solution must be allowed to stand for at least 12 hours, after which it will be possible to move around. But at the same time it is impossible to exert an external strong influence on it until it dries completely, which is up to 4 weeks.
As for the number of employees, it all depends on the required speed. While one pours the solution onto the base, the second evens it out, the third can knead the mixture for subsequent installation. At the same time, the use of special equipment in the form of a concrete mixer will greatly reduce the operating time.
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If necessary, after the surface has dried, the guides (beacons) should be removed. The resulting voids are sealed with a solution. This will provide a monolithic floor screed.
Depending on the proportions used for the preparation of the solution, as well as the specific recipe, the drying period will be from 10 to 30 days. If you have time, it is better to give the screed more time to stand so that excess moisture is gone.
All moments and stages of installation answer the question of whether a screed is needed in an apartment. You cannot do without it if you need to level the surface under the flooring of any kind of floor covering. It is from the latter that the specific version of the screed, all the subtleties and trifles in the work, will depend.
Pouring the floor with a cement-sand mortar does not take much time and financial costs, but it allows you to subsequently get a strong and strong foundation that can withstand significant external loads.
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