2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:54
- Cement floors - where to start?
- What are the best materials and tools to use
- Calculator for calculating materials for a sand-cement floor screed
- Work technology and basic work methods
The question of arranging the most durable and even foundation for subsequent work in the apartment largely determines the success of the repair work. The time spent on the installation of a leveling cement screed will pay off literally immediately, because a flat floor in the apartment will make it possible to carry out work without delay and procrastination in other directions - from tiling in the kitchen and bathroom, to wallpapering the walls and installing a stretch ceiling. At the same time, this is one of the most time-consuming and costly operations that requires maximum care and foresight in their consistent implementation.
Cement floors - where to start?
The ideal repair option is always the case when only a light bulb remains from the furniture in the room, and the residents move out to the dacha for at least a month. In order to properly make a cement screed in an apartment, this case is simply necessary, because, unlike cosmetic repairs to the ceiling or walls, leveling the floors requires the simultaneous use of all rooms, for example, if the leveling is carried out under the laminate, then it is better to work with the maximum surface area planned to cover with laminate.
Initially, before starting to make a cement screed, it is recommended to conduct a thorough examination of the entire floor surface of the apartment. The survey takes into account:
- surface defects associated with cement build-up from previous work;
- horizontal difference both in one room and throughout the apartment as a whole;
- the device of doorways, their design, the presence of thresholds in the design of the door frame;
- the need for additional adjustment of the door leaves after installation on a leveled floor (sometimes it happens that the differences are so great that you have to file the door leaf by 2.5-3 cm;
- the tightness of the floor seal around the central heating pipes;
- the design of the apartment heating system, the presence of plots or rooms with installed highways or underfloor heating systems;
- the presence of cracks, breaks, loose adhesion of the slabs to the walls or an improperly arranged screed with sound and heat insulation.
Further, the most important operation of the cement floor screed device is carried out - the determination of the total floor level required for pouring.
Advice: for this operation it is better and easier to use modern technical means of engineering work - a laser level. Building contour lines using such a device will take several minutes, much less than it takes time for a practical mark on the surface of the contour lines.
During that operation, you can use other traditional means - a hydro level, as a rule, and a regular bubble level. An important point here is the need to draw a general level of the so-called "0" in all rooms in order to calculate the amount of work.
The second stage of work is the calculation of the cost estimate, here it is important to clearly understand which method is most effective and better to carry out all the work:
- for large differences, from 4 cm or more, it is recommended to pour a cement screed based on cement mortar;
- small differences up to 2 cm can be leveled with ordinary ready-made self-leveling mixtures;
- for a floor with a large number of defects, it will be necessary to additionally reinforce the screed, even using a metal mesh or special welded wire screens;
- where the floor is planned to be used with high loads, it may be necessary to arrange a reinforcing belt of steel reinforcement.
What are the best materials and tools to use
Today, most of the mixtures for the device of a cement-sand screed uses cement grade 400 and grade 500. These components are used both in ready-made packaged mixes and in solutions called self-leveling mixes. In addition to preparing a mortar from ready-made cement screed compositions, a pouring solution can be prepared independently. For large areas and the use of a reinforcing layer made of synthetic or metal mesh, cement grade 400 is mainly used, in a proportion of 1 proportion of cement and 3 proportions of sand. For more demanding work, we will use cement grade 500, the ratio of parts of cement and sand for the preparation of the solution is also 1: 3.
In some cases, when it is necessary to speed up the hardening process, or when work is carried out in an unheated room, it is permissible to use various chemical additives - plasticizers, which reduce the time indicators of the screed hardening.
For small differences, you can achieve an even horizontal surface by pouring special ready-made mixtures. The leveling screed of the floor, reinforced, up to 2 cm in thickness, can be poured without problems using a self-leveling cement mixture for the floor. A dry mixture of this composition has additional inclusions that make the mixture especially mobile, therefore, when pouring, it turns out that the solution from such a mixture finds irregularities on its own and fills them, forming an even smooth floor.
In addition to self-preparation, it is possible to use a ready-made solution produced at house-building factories and delivered by a mixer; for this, the cement screed grade of the finished solution should be M100, M150, M200.
Calculator for calculating materials for a sand-cement floor screed
Indicate the values in meters in the format 0.00 meters
Calculators from wpcalc.com
Details about proportions, cement grade and material consumption.
Work technology and basic work methods
In the process of work, it is important not only the question of which cement is best for the screed, but how the work is technologically correct, and for this it is necessary to use the appropriate tool that allows you to work as efficiently as possible. In the process of work you will need:
- container for solution preparation;
- a bucket, or even several buckets, but one of them must have a scale for liquid;
- needle roller;
- paint brush;
- Master OK;
- scissors for metal (for metal reinforcing mesh);
- Rubber Shoes;
The screed is poured in two main methods:
- using self-leveling compounds;
- filling with beacons.
Before making a cement screed, the floor is swept, large cracks are closed, and, if possible, the surface is treated with a primer to create a durable subfloor layer.
The technology of pouring with self-leveling mixtures is extremely simple - a solution is poured onto the prepared and treated surface with a primer and a screed layer is formed. Using a needle roller, rolling over a fresh, still liquid solution, air bubbles are removed, after which the mixture is left to dry until completely dry.
For a cement-sand floor screed with a layer of reinforcement and large differences, it is recommended to pre-install beacons. On the laid reinforcing mesh 20-25 cm from the wall and further at a distance of 1 meter along the back of the room, special metal beacons are installed, at level "0".
Further, the device of the cement screed is carried out according to the classical technology - the solution is leveled across the floor, and the surface is formed using the rule that is moved along the beacons.
You should be aware that the use of too liquid solution can lead to deflections, the formation of puddles, settling of sandy filler, therefore, for self-preparation of the solution, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the recommendations, and the solution itself should be at least the consistency of sour cream.
Technologically, cement has several stages of strength development, so the question of how long the cement screed dries directly depends on the time and air temperature. At a normal temperature of +20 degrees C, it is not recommended to walk on the floor for the first 3 days, after 5 days you can step carefully, and after 7 days you can continue working on the surface without any problems.
Compare the possibilities of self-creation of a floor screed and the option of hiring professional builders for the device of a leveling screed, the price of services, which ranges from 120 to 250 rubles per 1 square meter. The cost of the concrete screed itself with fiber reinforcement will be from 345 to 700 rubles per 1 sq. meter.
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