2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:54
- Floor screed works
- Materials used for screed
- Screed waterproofing
- Concept and classification
- Tools and materials
- Foundation preparation
- Seam processing
- Surface priming
- Solution preparation
- Screed technology
- Applying fill layers
- Underfloor heating device
- Possible mistakes
- Professional advice
For leveling the surface for flooring or as a topcoat, there are currently a huge number of ready-mix options and installation methods. But people are trying to find something suitable and at the same time of high quality, beneficial in all directions. For this reason, more and more began to resort to pouring a self-leveling floor, which has an extensive classification and types, the choice of which depends on the circumstances of the repair work.
Floor screed works
With the right approach to repairing floors, you can easily ensure that the parquet does not creak over time, the laminate does not sag, and the tiles can be laid on a thin layer of glue. Screed work is a crucial stage that requires the close attention of builders. Here you need to know and understand that minor discrepancies in flatness can lead to defects in the finishing floor covering.
Materials used for screed
To fill the leveling layer, a cement-sand mixture is used. Pouring a large layer into the mixture can be added: crushed stone or expanded clay. If the layer is small, up to 7-10 mm, then ready-made self-leveling mixtures are used. It is worth noting that in the rooms where tiling work will be carried out, the screed should be as even as possible.
It is worth noting one nuance when screed work is done in the kitchen or in the bathroom. Since the plumbing is installed in these rooms and there is a possibility of accidental ingress of moisture on the floors (a burst of a water pipe, a sewer leak, etc.), then in such rooms a screed with preliminary waterproofing should be made. The process does not differ from the standard one, only before laying the metal mesh, the surface of the old subfloor and about 10-20 cm of walls is treated with bitumen mastic or waterproofing mixtures of the GLIMS-Vodostop type. Then you can start pouring the screed according to the main process. After the screed is thoroughly dry (from 7 days for tiles and about 30 days for parquet), you can start laying any facing materials for floors.
Concept and classification
Self-leveling self-leveling floor is a variety of materials used for filling the sub-floor. In addition, the surface can be completely different. He has the main goal - to make the floor perfectly flat and durable.
The composition of the filling includes cement, fillers, modifiers. Each of them gives the finished solution the necessary qualities. Despite their name, self-leveling, you still have to smear it on the surface of the future floor with a spatula. Subsequently, they can serve as the basis for tiles, linoleum or, for example, laminate.
If it is necessary to level a layer of concrete or a screed of cement and sand, then the base mixture is selected. In the end, you still have to use other mixtures, if the topcoat is especially done. The thickness of this layer can be up to 80 mm, but will not be less than 10 mm. 12 hours after installation, you can walk on the surface, as the screed will gain strength.
When the surface irregularities reach 30 mm, then the middle layer of the mixture is most often poured onto a layer of concrete or cement-sand screed. The minimum layer thickness is 7 mm. High surface strength is achieved already after 4 hours. Perfect for almost any floor covering that will be matched to the room.
The finish coating after drying has no flaws if the pouring technology is fully followed.
You can do without floor coverings, but paint or otherwise decorate a floor that was not even striking before. This layer is not thick and is at least 2-3 mm. The maximum permissible thickness should not be more than 1 cm. Strength is achieved after installation after 4 hours.
This was said about the mineral self-leveling floors. We must not forget about the polymer, where they emit:
- Epoxy. They have a lot of positive qualities. Most often they are used in premises where resistance to various chemicals, oils, solvents, paints, etc. is required.
- Polyurethane. Excellent properties of durability, resistance to high and low temperatures, elasticity, resistance to aggressive chemicals in the chemical industry. The main thing is to set the properties of the operation of the floor in the room and you can safely fill in the polyurethane self-leveling floor.
- Methyl methacrylate. They are very demanding on the device, and for this reason they are less popular. But on the other hand, the drying time is only a couple of hours and they can be poured even at low temperatures no higher than +8 degrees. Ventilation of premises during filling is very important, as there is a huge release of harmful substances. This immediately removes the question of whether it is possible to fill the floor at such temperatures, outdoors and under adverse weather conditions. Methyl methacrylate floors can do this with ease.
- Epoxy urethane. Such a self-leveling floor device is used on parking platforms where there is intense and constant movement of vehicles and people. The durability is very high, and at the same time the floors are endowed with many of the qualities of the polyurethane version.
Tools and materials
Before you learn how to fill a self-leveling floor, you should worry about preparing the necessary equipment. The most important thing is to have the right amount of the mixture.
The self-leveling floor must be carried out without interrupting work. That is, there can be no breaks, but everything is desired at one moment. Difficulties may arise with a limited amount of ready-made solution. So the best option is to buy literally a little more than the technology requires.
The container will play a role in mixing. Of course, the larger it is, the better. But this will require certain equipment for high-quality mixing of the pouring solution. If the buckets are about 30 liters each, then you need to stock up on 4-6 such options.
In order not to waste energy on mixing the components of the mixture, a drill with a mixer is taken. In this case, the rotations of the drill should be at the level of 300 rpm.
the finished fill is fluid and easily spreads over the surface itself. Even so, a spatula comes in handy, which achieves the best result.
To be able to pour in an even layer indoors, a squeegee is used. He has the ability to set a gap in millimeters above the floor level. At the same time, the material will be dispersed in the required amount for each square meter. Bubbles will form as the mixture is kneaded. To avoid them in the future, work is carried out with an aeration roller with needles. It will be enough for a room of 40-50 m 2.
If it becomes necessary to move through the solution, which has just been poured, a spike sole is purchased. It can be placed on the surface and not be afraid of damage to the top layer.
Upon completion of the work, the tool does not need to be thrown away. It should be thoroughly washed from the solution so that it can be used in the future when performing any construction work. A solvent is used to facilitate the task.
A very important stage is the preparation of the foundation. The quality of all work will depend on him. If, at the same time, the technology of the device of self-leveling floors is not observed, then subsequently the base will begin to crack and shrink. There can be no question of any durability. Whatever the surface under the self-leveling floor, it must be completely cleaned. This is even done when laying on asphalt. Everything should be deleted without exception. Each of the materials has its own properties. For example, cement absorbs moisture well.
If you lay the self-leveling floor on a cement-sand screed, then problems may arise in the future with the service life. In addition, the surface should be cleaned and even dust removed. In this case, a construction vacuum cleaner will help.
Situations may arise when the base of the self-leveling floor will have porosity. In the future, the working solution will easily get into these pores. Special impregnations available for sale in hardware stores will help to cope with this.
Wood can also act as a base. It is very popular in private home construction. Here you need to grind it, rub it with sandpaper until roughness is formed. Grease, varnish, oil or any kind of dirt should be avoided.
When performing work on pouring a self-leveling floor on ceramic tiles, you should carefully examine it. When it fits snugly to the base and does not bulge anywhere, then you can safely pour the solution. Otherwise, the tile is removed and the surface is cleaned.
When performing the construction of any house, the
concrete base shrinks. This is even stipulated by building codes and regulations. Each such seam must be thoroughly cleaned of dirt. Only further should be covered with a special primer for concrete surfaces. In some situations, you even have to use an airtight putty to cope with the tasks. At the junction of the walls and the base, a sealant is applied in order to exclude cracks and the ingress of the ready-made solution for the self-leveling floor there.
The final stage of preparation for pouring is the application of a primer mixture. The best option for this is concrete contact. It contains fine quartz sand. In order for self-leveling floor pouring with your own hands to adhere well to the base, the surface must be slightly rough. But before installing the floor, you should wait at least a day before the primer dries.
To begin with, the required amount of solution is calculated. Everything will depend on the area and thickness of the layer. If the layer is 3 mm, then for each m 2 will have 3 liter fill. But no one will give you an answer for sure, so you should cook a little more than required. In addition, the consistency will depend on the manufacturer. The screed should harden at temperatures from +5 to +25. These temperatures are optimal. The base itself should not cool less than +4 degrees. Heating the mixture will also not be beneficial. Its maximum temperature should not rise above 20 degrees.
All components of the future fill are mixed with a drill with a nozzle. After a few minutes of rest, stirring is repeated. Additional fillers are added in the second stirring of the solution.
The amount of the solution should be such that it will last for 1 hour of work. Otherwise, it will begin to dry out and lose its properties.
To obtain a variety of patterns and colors, various pigments can be added to the mixture, as well as decorative blotches.
The main rule of a properly filled layer is a perfectly horizontal level and a plane without drops. An important point if screed work is carried out with additional reinforcement.
A metal mesh is used as reinforcing elements for the screed. Depending on the layer, a mesh cell is selected, a small cell on a thin layer, a large one for larger ones. Further beacons are installed. In order to find the ideal level for the floor, markings on the walls are first beaten off. This is done using a water or laser level. The marks are connected in one solid line and from it you can already take a base dimension, thus determining the height and horizon for the lighthouse. If work on the screed is carried out in large rooms, then after placing the lighthouses, their plane is checked, achieving an ideal horizon without drops and bulges. After the lighthouses are exposed, the old base is primed and you can pour the mixture evenly distributing it over the entire surface, starting from the far corner and ending at the entrance to the room.
Applying fill layers
You should at least understand how to fill a self-leveling self-leveling floor. To begin with, an underlying layer is formed, which most often consists of quartz sand. The consumption is thus reduced by about half. Smoothing takes place with a needle roller. Next, the face layer is filled.
There should be no questions about whether it is possible to pour a self-leveling floor on an unprepared base. There can be only one answer - no. Otherwise, you will have to dismantle. But no one wants to face this, even specialists in the construction industry. The fact is that the self-leveling floor eats into the base and it is practically impossible to disconnect it from there using improvised means.
You should start pouring the solution from a high point, and then move on to all the rest gradually. You can use paint shoes to move.
Underfloor heating device
The warm floor under the self-leveling floor should be done after a detailed consultation with a specialist. Not every version of the polymer floor will remain environmentally friendly when heated. Some will think that at a temperature of the base in the range of 30-36 toxic substances will begin to be released. You should not be afraid of this, but you should adhere to certain rules when the question arises of whether you can fill the warm floor with a self-leveling floor.
After preparing the base, which is standard for all variants, it should be degreased. Next, the underfloor heating is laid, the option that was previously selected for the room. The first layer is poured onto the finished surface. This layer should settle for an hour, settle. During this time, the cement begins to set. After the set time, the topcoat is installed from the selected mixture for the self-leveling floor. After drying, there will be no slipperiness at the surface, it will be perfectly smooth.
Questions may arise about whether it is possible to use a self-leveling floor on a warm floor from water pipes. Here, first of all, a concrete screed is poured, which is controlled using a level for evenness. Next, foil-clad polypropylene is laid, and pipes for the warm floor are installed. Scorline is used on top of this and a polyurethane primer is applied. Only at the end of all these works can a self-leveling floor be arranged. The drying time for such a "cake" is two days.
Having studied all these subtleties in detail, there should be no questions about whether it is possible to fill the warm floor with a self-leveling floor. At first, these nuances will seem petty, but later they will help to get the really desired result, without any flaws. The self-leveling warm floor will delight for a long time.
Most of the errors that occur at the time of pouring a warm floor with a self-leveling floor appear due to ignorance of the differences between a conventional screed and this technology. The self-leveling coating gives us the "horizon", and the screed gives us the strength of the base. The thickness is also different: in the first case - on average up to 3-4 mm, and the screed is much larger. All the load should go to the floor and to the poured self-leveling floor, and the floor covering should not suffer due to constant deflections.
A list of minor tips will help you avoid difficulties when pouring self-leveling self-leveling floors:
- An unprepared base will give the self-leveling floors cracks, crunch.
- If you leave cracks before pouring the solution, air enters the latter, bubbles appear.
The hardening will be uneven, unless the poured solution is rolled in time.
- It will not be possible to pick out flies, hair, any debris from the resulting floor. This suggests the need to use special suits during work, as self-respecting construction firms do.
- The mixture and all components are thoroughly mixed. If this is not done, certain areas will become dark and will be constantly wet and sticky to your feet.
- Any solution releases various harmful substances before drying. So special protective masks should be used to avoid poisoning.
- High revolutions of the drill when mixing the solution will lead to the appearance of bubbles, which will be problematic to get rid of.
- It is best to fill the floor with zigzags. In the future, it remains only to level the entire area.
When mixing the mixture, it is extremely difficult to avoid getting the solution on your hands. This damages the human skin and burns. This is obtained by mixing cement with sand, resulting in an alkaline reaction. Gloves, as well as special goggles for protection, will allow you to avoid this and continue to perform work on the installation of self-leveling floors without consequences.
If the prepared solution accidentally gets into your eyes, you should immediately rinse them with water. In case of more severe consequences, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Indoor ventilation is also very important, where it becomes necessary to fill the warm floor with a self-leveling floor. All safety instructions must be followed at each step.
An important question is how to put a tile on a dry screed GVL. From the beginning, the correct installation of floor elements is performed, after the priming and laying of tiles on sheets
Varieties Of Self-tapping Screws For A Profile On Drywall. Description Of The Types Of Self-tapping Screws For Drywall. Selection For Different Frameworks, Calculation Of Quantities And Installation
How to choose self-tapping screws for drywall types and sizes. How to choose the right self-tapping screw for fastening a profile with or without a drill. Detailed photos and expert advice on fastening
Before you start tiling walls or floors with ceramic materials, you should carefully study all the stages of tiling and how to work quickly. The video instruction clearly shows the installation technology
A very important issue when finishing frame houses is the technology of laying tiles on OSB and how it is performed. The recommendation is quite simple, but it has installation features
How To Choose A Design For An Apartment And Decorate A Beautiful Interior For An Apartment Methods And Advice
Options and ways to decorate an apartment with your own hands, an overview of styles and decorative decorations that will help you decorate your future home on your own. Photo and video of apartment interiors