2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:54
- Classification of Sealants
- By the number of components
- Types depending on the basis
- Hybrid MS Polymer Sealants
Any sealant is a complex composition of polymeric materials that serves to seal and seal the joints of products. They are made mainly on the basis of rubbers, which allows them to be elastic. Another rather significant property of sealants is their high adhesion to the widest range of materials: from wood to iron. Here you need the right choice, and for this you need to carefully study the types of sealants and their properties.
Classification of Sealants
At the moment, you can see a huge number of types of sealants on sale, each of which is designed for a specific operating environment and has its own characteristics.
That is why it is worth considering the classification of the material, and after which the individual types.
The formulations themselves are classified according to two criteria:
- Number of components.
- Depending on the basis.
By the number of components
In turn, considering the first class, one-component and two-component can be distinguished.
It also has its own peculiarities. If we talk about one-component formulations, then their use (application) is possible immediately after purchase. But with two-component it is somewhat more complicated.
Such compositions include two components, the first is the material itself, the second is the activator. In this case, the second can be different substances, and even certain conditions. In total, there are three types:
- Vulcanizing under the influence of moisture, heat or catalysts change the viscous plasticity to an elastic rubber-like state.
- Non-drying when heated, they become fluid and viscous, soften. Upon cooling, they again change their state to their original solid.
- Drying sealants during operation, as a rule, are in an elastic, rubber-like state, but if they are exposed to a solvent, they turn into a liquid viscous-flowing state.
For the most part, such formulations are not very popular, therefore, one-component substances are most often used.
Types depending on the basis
By the polymer underlying the composition, they are distinguished
- Hybrid MS - Polymers
- Butyl sealants.
Each type has its own specific properties, advantages and disadvantages, and can also be used only in certain conditions that should be considered.
Silicone sealants are versatile due to their unique characteristics. They are the most popular type of sealant and are cheap in cost.
Among the advantages of this type:
- First of all, they have high performance in a wide temperature range. Thus, it can be used at temperatures from -30 to +60 degrees, without losing its properties.
- The polymer forms a monolithic coating that has good elasticity and durability.
- There is a large selection of colors for the composition.
But it is worth noting several significant disadvantages:
- Although such a sealant creates an ideal surface, it does not stain, since the paint contains a substance that destroys the structure. Thus, in the case of staining, the paint flakes off when it dries.
- Such compositions are not expensive.
- And the main problem is the inability to apply an additional layer after drying. Since in this case both the new and the old layer will peel off and you will have to completely re-seal the surface.
In turn, this type of material is additionally divided into two more types:
Each of the subspecies also has its own characteristics.
Acidic acid cannot be used to seal metal surfaces, since it is made on the basis of acetic acid, which in turn will corrode metal over time. And it is also not recommended for cement surfaces.
Neutral compounds, in turn, are unique and can be applied to any type of surface. In addition, a large number of different additives are supplied with them. For example, a fungicidal additive can create an airtight coating that prevents mold growth, which is important when used in rooms with high humidity.
Heat-resistant sealants are also noted, which, thanks to special additives, are able to withstand temperatures up to 400 degrees.
Sealants of this type are a unique adhesive composition that has a lot of advantages, including:
- They have high adhesion to building materials of any type, therefore they can be used on any surface.
- Since the material is not exposed to temperature, and can withstand significant temperature drops, it can be used for both outdoor and indoor work.
- The coating can be painted.
- The composition does not corrode and is also resistant to atmospheric precipitation.
The only significant drawback of the material is destruction under the influence of ultraviolet rays.
Most often, this type of sealant is used in roofing, ventilation, air conditioning and working with PVC plates.
Hybrid MS Polymer Sealants
Today, polymers of this kind are found in most modern adhesives and sealants. As the most recent development in the field of elastomeric materials, hybrid sealant adhesives combine the best properties of silicones and polyurethanes, while surpassing them in physical and technological characteristics.
Due to such a connection, they acquire a large list of advantages:
Long shelf life (up to two years)
- Easy to apply.
- Completely environmentally friendly.
- Due to polymers, it quickly hardens.
- Coloring is allowed.
- Possesses high adhesion to any materials.
- Transfer temperature drops up to 120 degrees.
- Does not corrode and oxidize.
It has a number of advantages:
- high resistance to weather conditions and UV;
- maintaining high elasticity and stability of properties in a wide temperature range (from -40 ° C to + 120 ° C);
- excellent adhesion to many substrates without using a primer;
- accelerated time of formation of the primary film and fast curing;
- absence of silicones, isocyanates and solvents in the composition;
- neutral type of curing.
Hybrid sealants are used mainly for sealing interpanel joints, which is due to the mass of the advantages of the material. It must be said that it is quite expensive, therefore its application in all areas of construction and repair is not always possible.
One-component MS hybrid polymers and two-component formulations are widely used in the industry.
This sealant cures under the influence of air humidity: the higher its value, the faster the curing process takes place. The ambient temperature also influences the polymerization rate. The simultaneous increase in these parameters significantly reduces the curing time. The average polymerization rate is 3 mm per day. Two-component hybrid MS polymers
The diagram clearly demonstrates the advantages of
MS hybrid formulations over polyurethanes and silicones. This allows MS-
compositions to meet the high requirements for
technological materials in the production and operation of
The next type of sealant is thiokol. This is one of the highest quality and most durable compounds. When used in the required environment, and for him it is an extreme environment with frequent exposure to chemical compounds, it practically has no drawbacks, but at the same time, a number of characteristic advantages can be noted:
- High level of resistance to constant exposure to solvents, kerosene, gasoline, acids and oils.
- Resistant to weather conditions.
- Withstands temperature changes in the range from -50 to +130 degrees.
- There is a low level of steam and moisture permeability.
Speaking about the use of the composition, as already mentioned, it is resistant to an aggressive environment, therefore it is used in places where constant exposure to chemical elements is characteristic. Most of them are parking lots, garages, gas stations, stations, etc.
An additional place of application is the repair and arrangement of the roof, where it is used due to good adhesion to metal, as well as a low level of moisture permeability.
It is worth noting that thiokol, with high quality, are difficult to use.
Acrylic sealants are among the cheapest and lowest in quality. They are used only for interior work, mainly for painting. Although it should be noted separately that there are some special types of acrylic sealants with decent performance.
Among the advantages of these are noted:
- They have good adhesion to porous substrates such as wood, concrete, plaster, etc.
- Easy to handle.
- Coating with varnish or paint is allowed.
- The coated substrate can be primed.
But there are also quite a wide range of disadvantages:
- Not very elastic
- Are afraid of moisture
- Do not tolerate exposure to atmospheric precipitation.
- Do not withstand large temperature changes.
- Turns yellow.
- It is easily damaged and does not tolerate mechanical stress.
Considering all the pros and cons, such a composition finds its application when installing skirting boards, doors, floors, and also when working with drywall. Those. internal work becomes the main area of application. You can also use acrylic to repair small cracks in wood furniture and brick walls.
Bituminous compounds are good for waterproofing premises, since they have good adhesion to various types of materials, in particular to concrete, bricks, metal, wood, roofing and waterproofing materials.
The only drawback is that bitumen is afraid of high temperatures, and when exposed to them takes on a liquid form.
Bitumen are most popular in the construction of houses, basements, garages, etc. They are mainly used in the arrangement of foundations, installation of roofing systems, waterproofing of poles and roof repairs.
This material is a thermoplastic mass, which is created on the basis of polyisobutylene rubber.
The material has quite a few advantages, including:
- Lack of volatile components.
- High level of adhesion to aluminum, glass and steel.
- Not susceptible to ultraviolet rays.
- Retains its properties at significant temperature changes.
- It sets quickly and forms a thick, elastic layer.
- Have a high vapor permeability
- Low cost.
- Long operational period (up to 20 years).
Among the disadvantages of the material:
- Has a low tensile strength when exposed to low temperatures.
- Has only one color (black).
- Applicable only for the manufacture of window systems.
Butyl ones are most often used for sealing insulating glass units. But in addition, they can also be used for additional sealing of joints of various kinds of structures made of metal or glass. For example, it can be used for strengthening air ducts, gluing panels of thermal insulation or for sealing containers and vessels.
Thus, having considered all types of sealants, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as areas of application, you can choose the required type for yourself and your personal case. And in addition, about which company to buy the composition, see separate materials on our website. And in addition, we suggest watching several videos, which also provide recommendations on choosing the right sealant for your needs.
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