2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:54
- Saw types
- How to use a saw
What are the tools for sawing and cutting materials
Saw tool purpose
Saws are intended for cutting metals and wood materials. The saw has a metal band (disc) with teeth. The pitch is the distance between the tops of two adjacent teeth, the height of the tooth is the gap between the base and the top of the tooth. The saw teeth have 2 side and 1 front cutting edges. The saws for longitudinal sawing of sawn timber have teeth in the shape of a triangle and have a straight sharpening, thanks to which it is possible to cut only in one direction. The front cutting edge of such a saw cuts the fibers, and the two side edges separate them from each other.
For a saw to be cross-cut, the teeth are mainly in the form of an isosceles triangle and are sharpened on both sides. In such a saw, the front sharpening separates the fibers, and the side edges cut them.
There are hand-held, electric and circular saws. Electric are designed for both transverse and longitudinal sawing of materials, in particular boards, bars. In addition, they can be used to perform some types of carpentry work, such as sawing at a certain angle. The convenience of these saws lies in the fact that working with them does not require significant time and physical costs. Electric saws such as EP-5KM, EP-K6, K-5M, IE-5107 are widely used. Saws EP-5KM, EP-K6, K-5M are needed for sawing uncut logs, boards, ridges, beams. The cutting part of the saws is a saw chain consisting of hinged teeth. In the process of working with such electric saws, it is necessary to strictly follow the safety rules:
it is not allowed to work with a saw in a room with high humidity at a voltage higher than 36 V;
to carry the saw, it must be placed in a case;
after completion of work, the saw must be removed to a specially designated place for it, for example, in a cabinet.
Saw IE-5107 due to its high rotation frequency (49 s-1) can cut wood materials with a thickness of 65 mm. It can also be used as a stationary machine when pre-installed on a workbench. In order to maximize the safety of working with the saw, it is necessary to check how correctly its teeth are sharpened and set apart, how the disc is mounted on the spindle, whether there are cracks or other damage on it. Checking the condition of the gearbox is carried out by turning the disk. In the event that turning the disc is difficult, dilute the lubricant, including the idle run of the tool for 60 s.
How to use a saw
After all the faults have been eliminated, grab the front handle with your left hand, and the back handle with your right hand, and install the saw blade on the material previously fixed on the workbench. The saw must be guided strictly along the intended line, without sudden jolts, smoothly, since the tool disc with sharp and fast movements can jam, provoking a breakdown of the electric motor.
Provided that, nevertheless, the disc is jammed and it stops, the electric saw is pulled back a little, helping to release the disc and set the required speed, and then continue cutting. If the blade does not pick up the required speed, work with the saw is stopped. At the end of sawing, the saw is turned off, wiped off with a rag soaked in kerosene and put away for storage.
There are hacksaw hand saws (hacksaws), transverse and bow. The former are used for cutting small bars.
An ordinary hand hacksaw has two (right and left half frames), spliced with a clip. The handle is on the side of the right frame. The hacksaw blade is placed in the gap between the rod and tension screw, and then fixed with a pin. Then the tool blade is pulled with a lamb.
Hacksaw blades can be 320 and 370 mm long. The width of the hacksaw is 15 mm and the thickness is maximum 0.75 mm. The height of the hacksaw tooth profile is 55-60 mm. The choice of the number of teeth on the hacksaw blade is determined by work with a specific metal. In particular, 16-tooth blades are only suitable for working with soft metals, 19-tooth blades are used for hard metal products and 22-tooth blades are suitable for ultra-hard metals.
To cut the bar with a hacksaw, it should be placed in a vise and clamped so that the cut line is located next to the vise jaws. When cutting a part with a large width, the position of the hacksaw is horizontal. In the event that parts are cut from strip or angle steel, the position of the hacksaw is inclined.
To achieve optimal results, you need to perform 40-50 hacksaw movements per minute. When the tool moves forward, pressure is applied; when moving backward, there is no pressure. The force of pressing is due to the properties of the metal with which the work is carried out. In particular, the pressure force when cutting soft metals should be significantly less than when cutting hard metal products. In the process of working with a hand hacksaw, so that the tool blade does not crack and does not injure your hands, you should avoid sudden movements accompanied by significant pressure. In addition to hand hacksaws, electric ones are also used. When working with such a hacksaw, periodically it is necessary to wet the tool blade with a liquid emulsion to avoid overheating.
Cross saws are designed for cross cutting and carpentry work. The saw teeth resemble isosceles triangles and are obliquely sharpened. The angle at the apex of the tooth is usually 42-45 °. The saw blades are available in thickness of 1.1 and 1.4 mm.
Bow saws consist of a bow made of hard wood, a blade having a length of 785-800 mm, and a bowstring made of a twisted hemp or linen cord with a thickness of 3-4 mm. They can be longitudinal and transverse. For transverse bow saws, the blade width is 22-25 mm, the taper angle is 70-79 °, and the distance between the teeth is 4.5-5 mm. For longitudinal bow saws, the blade has a width of 50-55 mm, a thickness of 0.5-0.7 mm, the distance between the teeth is 5 mm, and the taper angle is 45-50 °.
Circular saws are used to cut material in a curve. The blade of these saws is 500 mm long, 5-15 mm wide, the distance between the teeth is 5 mm, and the taper angle is 55-60 °. The saw teeth are sharpened straight.
In order to reduce the frictional force, which can lead to the tool blade getting stuck in the cut, the teeth are set apart. For this, the canvas should be placed in a vice and clamped. Then you need to take a universal setting and bend the tops of the teeth from the base at least 2/3 of their height. Even teeth are deflected in one direction, and odd teeth in the other.
To perform work with hardwood, the saw teeth are set apart by 0.25-0.5 mm. If necessary to cut softwood materials, the saw teeth are set 1 mm apart. A template is used to check the correctness of the divorce.
To prevent the string from stretching for a long time, after finishing work with the saw, the twist should be slightly released.
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