2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:54
Eye trauma and damage - what to do?
- Damage to the cornea of the eye
- First aid for eye injury
- Consequences of eye injury
- Treatment of eye injuries
- Prevention of eye injuries
Eye trauma - damage as a result of exposure to environmental factors, during which its integral structure and functionality were violated. These include either a blow with a hard object, or contact with a chemical substance on the mucous membrane of the eye.
Damage to the cornea of the eye
The cornea is the most unprotected part of the organ of vision, therefore it is most often injured. The number of people visiting doctors with similar injuries is large. In most cases, they are caused by the ingress of a foreign body from the external environment, injuries caused by the influence of chemicals are slightly less common.
In the event of microtraumas of the ocular surface (trauma during eyelash extension, corneal trauma when putting on a contact lens, damaged lens, accumulation of protein deposits on the lens), which are accompanied only by the feeling that something has got into the eye, you should not neglect the treatment, since the lack of treatment microtrauma can lead to irritation and redness, which in turn can contribute to the development of complications (keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis, corneal ulcers), since damaged tissues are the gateway for infection.
For the restoration of eye tissues, drugs with dexpanthenol, a substance with a regenerating effect, have proven themselves well. In particular, the eye gel "Korneregel" has a healing effect due to the maximum concentration of dexpanthenol 5%, and the carbomer included in its composition, due to the viscous texture, prolongs the contact of dexpanthenol with the ocular surface.
If the cause of the damage was the ingress of a foreign body, then the diagnosis, as a rule, is not difficult, since the foreign object is clearly visible under focal illumination. Depending on how far the foreign body has penetrated, doctors distinguish between deep and superficial injuries.
A common type of damage is corneal erosion, when its integrity is violated due to the destructive effects of chemical, mechanical or toxic substances.
There are also corneal injuries, which can be non-penetrating and penetrating. Separately, there are corneal burns, which in more than 40% of cases lead to the fact that a person becomes disabled.
Symptoms of damage to the cornea of the eye
The cornea is very sensitive, because the slightest irritation of it leads to the fact that a person feels severe discomfort in the eye.
Additionally, the following symptoms of damage to the cornea of the eye can be distinguished:
- Profuse lachrymation.
- Increased sensitivity of the organ of vision to light.
- Blepharospasm. This condition is characterized by the fact that the circular muscles of the eyelids contract uncontrollably. With a corneal injury, blepharospasm occurs as a response to pain.
- Pericorneal conjunctival injection. It is formed when the deeply located vessels of the conjunctiva expand.
- Defect in the epithelial layer of the cornea.
- Painful sensations.
- Sensation of grit in the eyes.
- Visual impairment.
- Expansion of intraocular vessels, and as a result - redness of the eye and eyelids.
- In some cases, headache occurs.
Despite the nature of the damage to the cornea, this complex of symptoms most often does not change. The only exceptions are some of them, for example, headache, which may sometimes be absent.
Consequences of damage to the cornea of the eye
The consequences of trauma to the cornea of the eye can be very serious, up to complete loss of vision, without the possibility of its restoration. Especially often, such complications occur with penetrating wounds and chemical burns of the cornea. Therefore, it is so important to seek first aid in a hospital and receive qualified treatment.
Secondary glaucoma often becomes a complication of deep burns. This is a whole group of diseases that occur against the background of a violation of the outflow of intraocular fluid. After injury, rough scars, displacement of the pupil, opacity of the vitreous humor, corneal edema, and increased intraocular pressure may occur.
Another consequence of damage to the cornea is traumatic cataract, which is expressed in the clouding of the lens and in impaired visual acuity. Its resorption can lead to aphakia. This condition is characterized by the absence of a lens in the eye.
However, serious consequences are most often avoided if competent first aid was provided to the person on time.
First aid for eye injury
Depending on the nature of the injury, the correct and highest quality first aid should be provided:
- If a person has received a cut injury, then it is necessary to cover the eye and eyelid with a clean cloth and fix it with a bandage. If possible, cover the undamaged eye to stop the synchronized movement of the eyeballs. After that, you need to see a doctor.
- A blindfold should also be used when the eye has been injured by a blunt blow. However, you must first moisten it in cold water, or put a chilled object on top of it.
When an eye injury has occurred as a result of a chemical burn, it is necessary to rinse it as soon as possible with running water. The amount of water should be large, the eye should be washed with the head tilted. In this case, the organ of vision should be below, and the water should drain from the nose outward. The eyelids must be spread apart with the fingers. After rinsing, cover your eye with a clean cloth bandage and consult an ophthalmologist.
If a foreign body gets into the eye, then in no case should it be removed, especially when it has penetrated into the eyeball. You cannot remove it on your own even when this foreign body is metal shavings or when a foreign particle is located in the area of the iris of the eye. You just need to cover your eye with a cloth and see a doctor. If a foreign object is represented by an eyelash or other speck and floats along the eyelid, moving freely, then you can try to get it with a tampon made of tissue. To do this, you need to pull back the lower eyelid and wait until the foreign object goes down, and then remove it. In the event that the particle is under the upper eyelid, it is worth asking for help from a person nearby. To do this, the victim must lower the eye down, and the assistant pull the upper eyelid and bend it up,using a cotton swab. Once the particle is in sight, it can be carefully removed. If you could not cope with this task on your own, then you should seek medical help.
- If a person has suffered from a penetrating injury to the eye, then stopping the bleeding is of paramount importance. If there is an object in the eye that caused injury, such as a knife, do not try to remove it yourself. This will provoke increased bleeding. It is enough just to press a clean cloth against the damaged eye, and cover the second with a handkerchief, which will help reduce bleeding. If it doesn't stop at all, then at least it won't intensify. In this state, a person must be taken to a doctor.
First aid for any injury to the eye must be provided in a timely manner. You should handle the damaged organ with the utmost care and attention. Timely initiation of systemic antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy is a guarantee that it will be possible to minimize the consequences and complications of the injury.
Where to go with an eye injury?
If an eye injury has been sustained, you should contact a specialized trauma center. As a rule, they operate around the clock in all large settlements. If this is not available, then any local hospital, inpatient clinic, clinic or paramedic center will do. If it is not possible to get to the medical facility on your own, then you should call an ambulance and report the problem.
It happens that an eye injury is received far from settlements. In this case, you need to deliver the victim to the nearest medical facility on your own, after providing first aid.
When contacting a medical institution, you should take care of the minimum package of documents - it is advisable to have a passport, policy and SNILS with you.
Consequences of eye injury
The consequences of an eye injury directly depend on its nature and the timely provision of first aid.
If the treatment was of poor quality, and the therapy was inadequate, then the following complications may develop:
Sepsis. This is a serious condition caused by the ingestion of infectious agents into the bloodstream and the poisoning of the whole body with toxic products of their vital activity.
- Loss of an eye.
- Persistent loss of vision.
- Brain abscess. It is characterized by the accumulation of pus in the cranial cavity.
- Panophthalmitis. It is characterized by a global inflammation of a purulent nature, causing the melting of all membranes and structures of the eyeball.
- Sympathetic inflammation. It is expressed in the fact that a healthy eye begins to suffer. This is a kind of reaction to the trauma of the first. Fibroplastic iridocyclitis is the most common complication from which the eye that has not received an injury suffers.
- Endophthalmitis is an accumulation of purulent mass in the cavity of the vitreous body of the eye and inflammation of its internal structures.
- The appearance of a disfiguring scar.
- Deformation of the soft tissues of the face.
- Twist, eversion and ptosis of the eyelids.
- Dysfunction of the lacrimal apparatus.
Treatment of eye injuries
Treatment of an eye injury cannot be started without a good diagnosis. For this, the patient is examined by an ophthalmologist, if necessary, additional examination procedures are prescribed, such as: biomicroscopy, radiography, visual acuity determination, gonioscopy, ophthalmoscopy, etc. The therapy begins as soon as possible and cannot be delayed. If a mild eye contusion has been diagnosed, then outpatient treatment is most often prescribed to the patient. An ophthalmologist's examination is necessary in any case. The victim is recommended to apply cold to the eye in the first hours after the injury and instill anti-inflammatory drops, for example, albucid. If pain is present, an anesthetic such as Analgin or Nurofen can be used. Hemostatic drugs can be prescribed - Dicinon and Etamsilat,as well as calcium preparations.
In case of eye burns, immediate removal of the damaging substance is required. Hospitalization of the victim is indicated for moderate and severe burns.
If a penetrating eye injury was received, then it will not be possible to do without surgical intervention. The operation is urgent and is performed by an ophthalmologist surgeon.
If a foreign body gets inside the eye, it must be removed, systemic treatment is performed and a sterile bandage is applied. Treatment is carried out in a hospital or outpatient setting. This will be determined by your doctor.
Drops for eye injury
In case of eye injury, the use of the following drops is recommended:
- Mesaton, Tropicamide, Midriacil are instilled up to 3 times a day, 1 drop in each eye. They are used to diagnose the fundus and lens, as well as anti-inflammatory and prophylactic agents after surgery.
- Torbeks, Oftaviks, Florax are broad-spectrum antibiotics designed to fight inflammation.
- Diclof, Naklof, Indokollyr - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drops.
- Oftan-dexamethasone - hormonal eye drops.
- Anesthetic drops - Inocaine.
Do not use drops after eye injury without first consulting a doctor. You can only drip Albucid to disinfect the mucous membrane, with simple eye injuries.
Prevention of eye injuries
Prevention of eye injury consists in observing safety precautions in any production, in the careful use of chemicals in everyday life, as well as in careful handling of dangerous objects in life.
It is especially important to observe safety rules when working in a school laboratory, educational enterprise and workshop. In addition to the fact that any activity in these institutions in itself belongs to a higher hazard class, in addition to everything - there are often schoolchildren. But it is precisely eye injuries that rank first among the general traumatization in children.
It is important to provide a safety briefing and make sure that every child is familiar with it and understands all the rules. Before starting work on any machine or device, it is important to check its serviceability. During work, you must follow the rules of personal hygiene, use personal protective equipment.
In everyday life, all chemicals and substances should be found outside the reach of the child. These are cleaning agents, glue, ammonia, vinegar, etc. When choosing toys, it is important that they are age appropriate and have no sharp corners. All this will protect the eyes from damage and preserve vision, both for a child and an adult.
The author of the article: Degtyareva Marina Vitalievna, ophthalmologist, ophthalmologist
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