2023 Author: Philip Bishop | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 07:54
Causes and symptoms of mycoplasmosis
What is mycoplasmosis?
Mycoplasmosis is an infectious disease that occurs in an acute form. Mycoplasmosis is caused by microorganisms (mycoplasmas), which, in the generally accepted classification of pathogens, occupy a place between single-celled living microorganisms and multicellular pathogens of viral or bacterial infections.
In the special literature, about 70 types of mycoplasmas are described, but only a few are dangerous to humans.
Causes of mycoplasmosis
In human cells, 11 types of mycoplasma can parasitize, but only Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium can serve as the cause of mycoplasmosis. The debate between scientists about the pathogenicity of these microorganisms is still not over, so there is no definite answer to the question of whether pathogens always cause mycoplasmosis or only under certain circumstances. Perhaps the disease occurs only if there are other pathogens in the vagina. Most likely, the causative agent of the disease itself is not dangerous, since the results of laboratory tests for mycoplasmosis can be positive both in patients and in completely healthy men and women.
Mycoplasmas are parasites and can exist exclusively on the surface of human cells, which serve as a source of nutrients for these microorganisms. The causative agents of the disease settle on the cells of the vagina and urinary tract. Violation of the vaginal microflora, as well as the presence of causative agents of certain infections (trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes) causes a high concentration of mycoplasmas in the vagina. In this case, microorganisms are able to destroy the cells on which they parasitize. The disease causes damage to the urethra, provokes diseases of the prostate gland or cervix and vagina.
The reason for the transmission of infection can only be a traditional sexual intercourse in which a man and a woman participate. Homosexual contacts and oral sex cannot cause mycoplasmosis. Cases of the domestic transmission route of infection are also not described in the medical literature.
Symptoms and effects of mycoplasmosis
Mycoplasmosis is the cause of many diseases in gynecology - salpingitis, endometritis, inflammatory diseases of the vagina and cervical canal. If the doctor cannot establish the cause of one of the above diseases, then it is highly likely that the woman's disease is an indirect symptom of mycoplasmosis. Usually, the disease manifests itself in the form of clear, abundant discharge and a burning sensation when urinating. The patient also notes pain in the groin area, aggravated during intercourse or immediately after it. Symptoms of latent mycoplasmosis can also be primary miscarriage, polyhydramnios, abnormalities in the development of the placenta, and some other complications that occur during pregnancy. If the disease becomes chronic, then secondary infertility may develop,since mycoplasmosis causes a violation of the ovulation process, namely the maturation of the egg.
After suffering mycoplasmosis, women may have serious complications in the form of various inflammatory processes of the pelvic organs. The pathogens can be transmitted from the mother to the fetus in the womb, which can lead to a miscarriage in the first trimester of pregnancy. In the third trimester, the disease can cause the onset of labor ahead of schedule. Mycoplasmas enter a woman's body mainly through sexual intercourse.
In pediatrics, mycoplasmosis becomes the cause of respiratory and urinary tract diseases. Pathogens settle on the mucous membranes of the nasopharynx, upper respiratory tract, lungs, they affect the vulva and vagina in girls, as well as the bladder in boys and girls. Mycoplasmas enter the child's body by airborne droplets or from mother to fetus during intrauterine infection.
Men get mycoplasmosis less often than other sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea). In most cases, they are carriers of pathogens; in laboratory research, antibodies to an infectious disease can often be found in their blood with latent symptoms or almost complete absence of symptoms of mycoplasmosis. The route of transmission of infection in men is airborne or sexual.
40% of cases of mycoplasmosis in men are hidden, only under certain conditions (stress, weakening of the body's defenses) do mycoplasmas become active and cause a number of serious complications. Symptoms of mycoplasmosis in such cases can be an abundant transparent discharge from the urethra in the morning, pain in the groin area of a pulling character, a feeling of discomfort and a burning sensation when urinating. If mycoplasmas parasitize the cells of the testicles, then the disease can manifest itself in the form of redness, enlargement of the testicles in size, pain in the scrotum. A similar course of mycoplasmosis can cause disruptions in the process of spermatogenesis.
The incubation period for mycoplasmosis lasts from 5 to 20 days, on average no more than 10 days. At an early stage of the disease, the symptoms in women have much in common with inflammatory processes in gynecology; in men, the manifestations of the disease at the initial stage resemble urethritis in symptoms.
Diagnosis of mycoplasmosis
Diagnosis of mycoplasmosis consists of several stages: examination by a specialist, bacteriological examination, laboratory diagnostics using various techniques.
On examination, the doctor determines the condition of the walls of the vagina and cervix. The characteristic symptoms of urogenital mycoplasmosis or ureaplasmosis, noticeable on examination, are the presence of abundant discharge with a characteristic pungent odor, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the vaginal walls (redness, irritation), inflammation of the cervical canal.
Taking into account the symptoms of mycoplasmosis identified during the examination, the doctor may recommend an additional examination for syphilis, prescribe an ultrasound of the pelvic organs, write out a referral for urine, blood, etc.
A bacteriological or cytological smear can help a specialist to establish the causes of the inflammatory process. Mycoplasmas cannot be detected using such studies, but, nevertheless, this analysis is very important for identifying other causative agents of infectious diseases, such as gonorrhea, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, which can cause symptoms that have much in common with the symptoms of urogenital mycoplasmosis …
For a more accurate diagnosis, sowing of vaginal discharge or discharge from the penis is used, which allows a more detailed study of the causative agents of mycoplasmosis, to establish their sensitivity to various antibiotics. According to the results of such a study, one can judge the size of the population of pathogens in the human genitourinary system.
PCR analysis for mycoplasmosis
Diagnostics based on the cultivation of a culture of pathogens is one of the ineffective methods, PCR is considered the most sensitive today. So, with a negative culture result, the PCR method detects mycoplasmas in 90% of the examined patients.
This study is based on the determination of the DNA of microorganisms; this method is considered sufficiently sensitive and the most accurate in diagnosing the disease. A positive result when carrying out this analysis for mycoplasmosis indicates a high probability that the inflammatory process is caused by this particular pathogen.
Immunological analysis for mycoplasmosis
Immunological analysis for mycoplasmosis is based on the determination of IgG, IgM antibodies. It is often used to diagnose this disease. The results of such analyzes on the territory of the Russian Federation and in the countries of the former USSR are considered insufficiently accurate and therefore cannot serve for an accurate diagnosis and be used to assess the effectiveness of the treatment performed.
Most often, high titers of IgM antibodies indicate an active inflammatory process of an infectious nature. The presence of IgG antibodies without IgM indicates a previous infection and indicates that, most likely, there is no infectious process at the time of the examination.
An accurate diagnosis of the disease by analysis for mycoplasmosis, carried out using immunological research methods, can only be carried out by a specialist who sent the patient for examination and who has information about the standards of the laboratory that carried out the analysis.
Treatment and prevention of mycoplasmosis
A positive test result for mycoplasmosis is not yet a reason for prescribing medication for this disease. If the symptoms of the disease are pronounced, then smears are examined for other types of causative agents of gynecological and urological diseases. Mycoplasmas are the only cause of serious inflammatory processes in the body only in rare cases.
The method of treating the disease is based on the results of the tests performed and the types of pathogens identified during laboratory research. An integrated approach to treatment involves the appointment of antifungal drugs, antiparasitic drugs, physiotherapy procedures, medications that increase immunity, as well as douching the urethra.
If the disease becomes chronic or gives complications, then therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics is carried out. The course of treatment of the disease in most cases is 10 days, 2-3 weeks after its completion, the patient must be re-examined for the presence of the pathogen.
Relapses of mycoplasmosis are very common. To increase the effectiveness of therapy in the treatment of this disease and reduce the risk of relapses, the technology of extracorporeal antibiotic treatment is used, for which the incubation administration of antimicrobial agents in high doses is used together with the plasmapheresis procedure (blood purification).
Prevention of mycoplasmosis consists in the use of barrier methods of preventing pregnancy and passing regular (every 6-12 months) examinations by narrow specialists (gynecologists, urologists).
Article author: Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich | d. m. n. therapist
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